Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Outsourcing - Research Paper ExampleOutsourcing has turned out to be a samara business aspect, providing many firms with the chance of hiring an outside firm, to help in the completion of their production processes, and a salutary reduced cost but high productivity rate. The decision to undertake outsourcing is a sign of future day increase in profits.A number of factors have become considered before a firm can ascertain whether outsourcing is the right path for the firm to take. To many organizations the objective of outsourcing is to improve the companys financial competitiveness, majorly by means of reduction of costs. The author argues that, companies that specialize in various support functions work cheaper since they benefit from various plateful of economies, use the latest technology and expert knowledge. A number of organizations make the decisions outsource mainly since they neediness to try and focus on their key competencies, and check minimal value in creating in nominate processes out of these main competencies. Human resource outsourcing helps in reducing the overall work load of the submit Human Resource staff. According to him, this gives the firm an opportunity to focus on its strategic decision devising process, and development of the major competencies. Outsourcing HR processes can provide managers with an opportunity to pay close attention to their main businesses, instead of spending their valuable time on different HR processes, which are constantly move out to be complex and more advanced. HRO reduces attrition losing an indispensable employee can cost the management tens if not hundreds of thousands. In The United States alone, the annual cost of an employer turnover is close to $5
Monday, April 29, 2019
Teacher Evaluation - Essay ExampleThere ar takeers who dont teach very well according to my rating but still students are able to score full(prenominal) grades in their courses. Hence the greatest challenge while teaching is to measure the effectiveness of a instructor.The evaluation process used is quite simple. The process includes the evaluation of the average grade report of the class the instructor is teaching. There is a separate instructors evaluation form that is filled by each and every student, without their names. I regularly inspect classes and the way teachers are teaching. All these methods combine to give us a cash in ones chips picture of how the teacher is teaching and helper us to evaluate his or her performance.From my point of view a regular visit of 5 to 10 minutes in a class by a principle is good enough to inspect a teacher but then(prenominal) the principle has to scram sure the visit is unannounced, which will give the principle a clear view of wh at is happening (Danielson & McGreal, 2000). dogged observing hours distract the students and teachers both hence short and regular observing periods are most suitable. healthful there are a number of settings, for example a teacher assigns some work to the students and then we observe how is he or she helping the students in completing their work, it shouldnt be overdone like the teacher shouldnt help the student too much or too less. There should be a balance. so a teacher is observed while giving a lecture to check on the methods that are being used, we prefer interactive lectures that keep the students interest, boring and less interactive sessions are of no help to the teacher and the students both. These settings are important as being a teacher is not that difficult but handling situations and maintaining the interest of the class in a lecture are two difficult things that a good teacher must learn.We can learn how well the teacher is at maintaining healthy relationships ad dition a good teacher will always have a scheduled life. An effective teacher would always be motivating people around as thats how he treats the students in his or her class. A teacher should be polite and should listen to each and everyone.We dont often use conferencing techniques while evaluating a teacher but in some cases where problems are being faced by the students and no possible resolve is being derived and the root cause is not being caught, we prefer conferencing. The teacher goes through a draft meeting with the principle and other higher staff members like the vice principle and the coordinator. The primary continue for holding a teacher incompatible to teach in any class is the fact that the students do not understand the core concepts of the course and the overall grades are lower than expected. After the initial legal opinion of the teacher we predict an average grade of the class keeping in mind the ability of the students and the past(a) trends. If the grades are higher or lower than expected we conduct an evaluation of the reasons for that and then accordingly assortment our evaluations about the teacher.If the teacher is performing at a higher level than expected we do get along the teacher in terms of the class and rewards are also given, in case a teacher does not want renewal of contract than a meeting is held where the vice principal the coordinator and the principle trounce to the teacher for the reasons of this demand and try to make every possible
Sunday, April 28, 2019
Country Analysis - Essay ExampleThis stem attempts to review all the relevant factors that need to be considered with regard to starting a business in Taiwan for a foreign caller-up. In the process it will also take into consideration other factors like demography, religion, ethics, the level of corruption, and any other relevant factor that needs to be considered for an American company to start operations in Taiwan.Formosa was under the jurisdiction of the Dutch government for 38 years. The Portuguese plenty however are the unitarys responsible for giving the island its name Ilha Formosa which translates to beautiful isle. This island is more popularly known by its Chinese name which is Taiwan. It was in 1683 that it came under the rule of the Chinese government via the Manchu dynasty. Taiwan is just one of the countries in Asia that is being surrounded by water. This is one of the characteristics of Asian countries that make it appealing to other close countries from other c ontinents. Being under the governance of the Dutch, Chinese and Japanese, Taiwan held a very promising opening night for multinational companies to venture business in (Shackleton, 1-5).Geert Hofstede was one of the pioneers in understanding the importance of tillage in an international environment. This critically acclaimed sociologist and researcher has laid the foundation for cross cultural studies, especially in the compass of cross-cultural management (Phan, and Butler 231-260). The cultural environment of the country will be hence base on the cultural dimensions as studied by Hofstede. Other sociologists have also stressed on the importance of culture. Unless an foreign or different culture is understood, managers from other countries could experience what is known as culture clash or shock (Hofstede 20). This has to be avoided in order to bring about a equable working relationship between diverse cultures whether in business or
Saturday, April 27, 2019
Impact of Racial Relations in the States on the Development of shaft - demonstrate ExampleJazz in itself is a special kind of music characterized by much improvisation, manifold rhythms, and blue nones and swung accompanied by vocals affiliated to call and response tradition. No doubt, Jazz was originally meant to be dance music. However, courtesy its appeal and tastefulness, it soon gradated to be a p artifice of the contemporary popular music. Today, it would not be wrong to say that Jazz does has an important place in the modern Western chaste music. Jazz, though quint indwellingly an American music form has its roots in the West African musical art forms and rules (Gioia 1998). It besides contends to be mentioned that Jazz borrowed a lot from the European band music (Gioia 1998). Jazz as an American musical art form originated from the city of New Orleans (Gioia 1998). It was the large Creole and Cajun population that inhabited this American city, which blended the elemen ts of French-Canadian culture with their own native notes and rhythms to give way to a special kind of music called Jazz (Gioia 1998). Gradually Jazz expanded its scope to include deep down its ambit, varied other American urban centres, before it eventually migrated to Europe and other parts of the world. In the 20th century Jazz gave way to m any(prenominal) subgenres standardized bebop, hard bop and free jazz. hotfoot and racial relations did play an important role in the formulation of Jazz music. Music and wash Relations in America Much before the origins of the United States of American the race relations in America had been marked by varied levels of domination of the white race over the blacks. As remote as the white Americans were concerned, they were mostly free to choose between different modes of expression available and companionable to them. However, the things were not that simple and easy for the blacks. As is common with any suppressed race or culture, the blac ks resorted to modes of expression that were different and in tandem with their essentially African background (Werner 1999, p. 57). The oppression impacted varied facets of the well-disposed and personal life of the black Americans. The predominant white opinion was that the blacks were inferior to them and they could only become grow and civilized by adopting the art forms and modes of expression that had their origins in the Western civilization (Werner 1999, p. 36). However, it was easier said than done. In any age and time, it was impossible for a black individual to become white. So, the other possible way pop for the blacks was to imitate the white art forms and to harmonize their modes of expression by blending them with the white art forms (Werner 1999, p. 37). In that context, music was particularly an art form which allowed the blacks to register their protest and to give vent to their emotions and feelings in a way that they liked and that was their own. It is evident from the historical facts that each phase of black existence in America had its own distinct musical genre (Werner 1999). Once the slavery was abolished in America, it created a dire need for new musical solution for the urge to build and bolster a distinct black individualism and culture (Peretti 1994, p. 17). In the meantime, New Orleans, which was earlier under the French rule, had a thriving population of Creoles. A significant number of these Creoles were not only proficient in European instruments and European music, but also were conversant with the African drum rhythms and had already given way to a musical form that was after known as Jazz (Peretti 1994). The free blacks readily adopted Jazz to give vent to their essential isolation and pain. Till the late 40s, Jazz saw the emergence of varied black masters like Louis Armstrong and Thomas Dorsey (Peretti 1994). Yet, the most important fact was that the American media was mainly dominated by whites (Peretti 1994, p. 41). S o the anticipate result was that Jazz though being primarily Afro-American music, it was the
Friday, April 26, 2019
Reaction - Essay ExampleThe Ort, or the Centre of Information, offers more insight on the terrors of the holocaust through compelling projections made on the walls of the room. Furthermore, it gives recognition to all known Jewish final solution victims through names acquired from the Israels Holocaust Museum Yad Vashem. People have argued that the title Murdered Jews of Europe excludes those who died of inherent causes in concentration camps. As such, the title Memorial to the Jewish victims of the Holocaust serves as a break title since it would act as a remembrance of the suffering of all the Jewish victims, dead or alive.There are Holocaust Monuments in the united States though none are dedicated to slavery. near argue that reason behind this lies in the fact that, unlike slavery, the Holocaust was not perpetuated by the United States. In fact, the U.S. fought to have it stopped. However, many people feel that the U.S. should emulate Germany by setting up memorials for crimes they initiated.Emmaly vibrating reed represents a beacon of hope and perseverance. The fact that she survived the Holocaust at such a young historic period and lived to her eighties shows that people can overcome such trials in life and go on to do it a long and healthy life (Cantrell,
Thursday, April 25, 2019
Public Administration - Research Paper ExampleThe Hamiltonian School of archetype holds that power rests with the executive. A perfect public judgeship according to Hamilton was one that was actual under a dynamic telephone exchangeized executive control system. He frequently opposed state power in favor of centralized national power (Milakovich and Gordon 441).The Jeffersonian Tradition of Public Administration was mainly developed during Thomas Jeffersons latter years. This tradition dwells on the effects of political processes on government administration as well as the importance of connecting contemporary public policy with republican principles that are effectuate in the constitution. Jefferson once stated that he knew of no safe depository of the ultimate powers of the society still the people themselvesevery government degenerates when trusted to the rulers of the people alone (Farmer 76). To Jefferson, power resides in the people macrocosm governed and not to those d oing the governing.The Madisonian school of thought holds that the best public administration practices are to be achieved through the separation of powers between national government and the state. To Madison power should be shared between the central and federal governments. The Madisonian Tradition of Public Administration focuses on the need of proper representation under a native institution is the basis that should be used to share power (Warwick and Reed 156).Woodrow Wilson referred Public Administration to as a government in action. He also added that public administration was the executive, the operative and the close visible side of government. The Wilsonian Public Administration tradition emphasizes that public administration should number separately from the interests of the leaders. This school of thought says that power should be left in the hands of an active central government (Farmer 27).Public administration has greatly evolved over the years. The first
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
Anything you see fits - Essay ExampleThis process is still in existence in the electric current government where sexual relation has the legitimacy of passing bills and laws. The congress functions for the common upright by creating a balance between self interest and self government. The American people ar protected against the tyranny of the central government if it had supreme powers. The congress upholds the interest of the majority when enacting laws and passing bills (Keith, 40). The congress faces limitations much(prenominal) as the political and ideological differences between Democrats and Republicans. The party with the highest number of representatives has the strongest contribution to the bills and laws tabled in the congress. The penning also limits the powers of the congress since it subject to legislative and judicial review.The present day executive and the president pretend fulfilled the intensions of the conception fathers. The Bush administration declared fight on Iraq and Afghanistan to neutralize terror activities targeting America. The war activities were continued during the Obama administration (Shane, 30). The current Executive and President participate in foreign affairs such as addressing the civil war in Syria. The U.S government is a crucial partner in the ataraxis negotiation between Israel and Pakistan. The monetary policies such as tax reforms have been implemented by the current Executive. The president is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and determines diplomatic appointments and activities. These are part of the roles given to the Executive and the President by the founding fathers. The modern day presidency improves the balance of power by upholding the decisions made by the congress and another(prenominal) arms of government. The executive upholds the constitution and the president requires congress approval before the country goes to war or when passing reforms such as the health care reform. The execut ive bureaucracy has upheld the three branch
Decision-Making and Corporate Restructuring - Essay ExampleThis germane(predicate) process is described based on the cognizance and management style of its influential leader, Mr William S. Stravopoulos.In the past few years, Dow Chemical has been under spillage massive restructuring as indicated by the changes in its product lines. It is observed to be focusing on chemistry-related product linees for the attach to to achieve its goals - both in the short-term and long-term.For Mr Stravopoulos, making major decisions should start with the critical analysis of the products offered by the company and the stemma in which it is in as a whole. This initially entails the identification of the companys strengths or core competencies. This stage also requires distinguishing the areas in which the company can never excel due to the presence of formidable competitors or lack of technical know-how. Decisions are then do based on these areas identified by the company where its core compe tencies or weaknesses lie. As per the CEOs style, Dow Chemical opted to divest business units with lackluster performance and focus its resources on the core competencies noted. This sets the oecumenical direction of restructuring (Hodgetts)Moreover, decision-making should be planned carefully and done systematically. It involves systematic thinking in which a gimpy plan is conceived. The game plan comprises of the step-by-step procedures or strategically phased courses of action. This means that after determining the companys business objectives, formulating of strategies for the achievement of these goals follows. In the case of Dow Chemical, its business objectives emphasize improvement of quality, reduction of operating cost, change of company culture and fostering of growth. To achieve these, the company came up with a corporate plan divided into cardinal phases - the positioning stage and growth stage. The positioning phase focuses on the achievement of the first three obje ctives. When these are accomplished, the growth phase wherein the company aims for expansion commences. (Hodgetts)Another important factor in decision-making is the sharing of relevant information. Key people should be sufficiently aware of what is happening in the company. When people know what is going on, Mr Stravopoulos believes that they could make better decisions expediently. This is beneficial for the company because people are empowered to make good and apropos decisions as well as lessen corporate bureaucracy. (Hodgetts)Furthermore, the CEO believes that well-informed decision-making is an integral part of the business. As such, Dow Chemical invests substantially in research and discipline (Hodgetts). Not only would extensive research and development contribute valuable information for decision-making, but they also drive continuous product innovation. In running a business, specifically for corporate restructuring, difficult decisions will have to be made. The Dow CEO is confronted with tough decisions exchangeable company downsizing, which is often a highly emotional undertaking (Hodgetts). However, such decisions would have to be made if the success of the company is desired. This means that in decision-making both the short term and long term aspects of the business should be taken into consideration. Employees may have a negative
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Diagnosing and medicating grief as distemper - Essay ExampleGups argument for alternative emotions management strategies, to medicine is also justified. Grief has non been classified as depression, until the new D.S.M. publication, and the proposed management strategy may be a risky shortcut. Gup agues for aim of coping skills and these appear to empower psychologically and to ensure a long lasting solution to emotions. In addition, understanding emotions such as grief to be non-medical conditions also justifies the call that medications should not be use for management. Traditional understanding of management of emotions such as grief also validates Gups position against medication of emotions. Grief normally transforms peoples lives and could motivate the grieving person of help the person severalize opportunities for progression in life and medicating grief denies a person an opportunity for transformation. Grief is also a way of expressing love for what a person has lost and medical treatment therefore undermines the emotional position of grief. In addition, counseling that has been used as a strategy to managing grief requires acceptance of loss and the posit to shift the pain to emotional development. Medication doses not however address the suffered loss and could therefore be a short-term solution yet a long-term solution is more appropriate. It is also cardinal to note that crisis into emotions can be best understood from the beholders perspective. However, medication is based on a practitioners perspective and could therefore undermine resolving the real problem into grief.
Monday, April 22, 2019
An internet based company research project for my Business management shed light on - Essay ExampleThe conclusion section summarizes the master(prenominal) ideas presented in the paper, and makes inferences where appropriate.Highlights of the paper include a scope of the company its nature, mission and products, a description of the current financial standing earnings or losings of the company, an overview of the problems and issues the company was subjected to, an investigation of the companys current and future business strategies, a summary and conclusions.Johnson & Johnson was established in 1886 in the New Jersey State. The company is very committed to innovative healthcare products (Johnson & Johnson, 2009). This has greatly contributed to the companys consistent financial performance. Johnson & Johnson has enjoyed dividend increases for 47 consecutive years, adjusted earning increases for 25 consecutive years and sales increases for 76 consecutive years.Johnson & Johnson em ploys about 119,000 across the world and is involved in manufacturing and selling of healthcare products in a number of countries across the world. The companys main interest, both currently and historically, is in products that are link up to well-being and health (Johnson & Johnson, 2009).Johnson & Johnson strongly believes decentralized management principles, which it practices. The companys executive committee is its master(prenominal) management group, which ensures effective and efficient operations of the company.Furthermore, a number of members of the Executive Committee are similarly Group Operating Committee chairpersons. This committee comprises of management experts in a number of specialized functions and managers representing main operations within this group. The Committees are charged with the responsibility of overseeing and coordinating both international and domestic activities connect to every Professional, Pharmaceutical and Consumer segments of
Sunday, April 21, 2019
The American War of Independence - Essay ExampleBut by whatever stroke of fate, the colonials completely trounced the mighty forces of Great Britain. The rout was so unexpected that the historian jakes Ferling quoted George Washington as saying that the American achievement was a little short of a stand up miracle.1 Ferling went on to say that the skirmishes and battles often hinged on intangibles such as leadership under fire, heroism, good fortune, blunders, perseveration and surprise.2 The British forces all throughout the war played the aggressor , employing time-tested strategies and tactics that it had employ before against the French, Spanish and Irish foes. The colonials, meanwhile, a complete tyro in any warfare, were always on the defensive employing tactics that were best suited for the occasion.often dismissed by the British as ragtag4 were surviving on a measly budget accorded them by the Continental Congress. Thus, in rough skirmishes, they were on the brink of s tarvation, sometimes attired in tattered clothes and shoes and sometimes in decrepit condition. The triumvirate of King George III, Secretary of State George Germain and Prime Minister Lord North formed the meat which decided what tactics Britain should implement in the war in the New World. This nucleus ,establish in London, 3000 miles out from the arena of war, was responsible for the coordination, the logistics and the communication needed to win a war. Meanwhile, the Continental Congress, composed of delegates from all the colonies and based in Philadelphia, was the brain and the nerve center , the controller and the coordinator of the colonial forces.With the riches coming from its colonies in the westside Indies, Canada, America, Gibraltar and India, there was no doubt that Britain entered this war financially prepared. The Congress, on the other hand, aware that any victory would hinge on how well-oiled the war machinery would be, desperately sought finances both from abro ad and from the home front. It utilize the strategy of diplomacy and psychology on Englands long-standing enemies, France and Spain, stoked the latters hatred and resentment and came out extracting some financial musical accompaniment as well as munitions from both. Since that was not enough, it used 4 tactics to raise money locally i.e. loans from well-to-do merchants and planters forced loans ... from farmers who were given certificates of indebtedness by levying money or goods apportioned among the various states and by issuance of paper money, the famous Continental currency.5
Saturday, April 20, 2019
The hidden meaning of the celluloid Avatar - Essay ExampleThe flick gives an insight to cultural and religious trends that give rise to the film and the reasons those trends atomic number 18 feared, criticized and resisted enabling them to fight with their own views about the controversy. Like the film itself, Avatar and Nature spiritualty gives a prospect for considering the ongoing struggle to decide how we should live on the home planet and sort out sorts of spiritual values and practices in terms of politics and economics would best guide us. The cultural ethnocentrism constitutive(a) in the movie is Hinduism. Hinduism believes that Avatar is sent to us for very specific jobs and he is the God Vishnu the sideline quote from Gita tells us more about VishnuWhenever righteousness wanes and unrighteousness increase I send myself forth, for the fortress of good and for the destruction of evil (Gita 4.78)Apart from sharing the same instincts of Vishnu in the movie, it also co nsiders Shiva and Ganesha because agree to the Hindu mythology they are also described as the descending in the form of avatars. Bron Taylor, a prof of ecology founded the journal for the study of Religion, Nature and Culture published in 2007, which illuminated the questions like what are the relationships among human beings and what does the terms religion, nature and culture signify and what is the relationship between species and places which we inhabit etc. This journal illuminated James Cameron, director of Avatar with various facts and elements associated with nature and its meaning.
Friday, April 19, 2019
Biomarkers - Essay ExampleIn aquatic environment, biomarkers depend upon the animal(prenominal) environmental conditions such as temperature, pH or salinity, as well as toxic concentrations of chemical substance pollutants or any combination of these.Biomarkers nates be reason as non-specific and specific according to their responses to a particular element or a group of environmental factors (Mayer et al., 1992). non-specific biomarkers, for example ribonucleic dosage/deoxyribonucleic acid, radiolabelled amino acid or nucleotide incorporation, and adenylate energy charge, give direct entropy on the growth rate or potential of an organism but they can not be employ to determine the particular toxicant. limited biomarkers can be again categorized n to both sub-categories, organ, and toxicant specific according to system of their recognition. Organ specific biomarkers are analyzed by examining changes in concentration specific enzymes in organisms whether as Toxicant-specific biomarkers are analyzed according to the exposure and effects on an organism due to a chemical or group of chemicals.Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), transaminases, creatine phosphokina... criteria with which to assess results should be availableBiomarkers can be categorized as non-specific and specific according to their responses to a particular element or a group of environmental factors (Mayer et al., 1992). non-specific biomarkers, for example ribonucleic acid/deoxyribonucleic acid, radiolabelled amino acid or nucleotide incorporation, and adenylate energy charge, give direct information on the growth rate or potential of an organism but they can not be used to determine the particular toxicant. Specific biomarkers can be again categorized n to two sub-categories, organ, and toxicant specific according to method of their recognition. Organ specific biomarkers are analyzed by examining changes in concentration specific enzymes in organisms whether as Toxicant-specific biomarkers ar e analyzed according to the exposure and effects on an organism due to a chemical or group of chemicals.Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), transaminases, creatine phosphokinase, lysosomal enzymes, alkaline phosphatases and manifold function oxidase are the examples of organ specific biomarkers while as inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by organophosphates and inhibition of cytochrome P monooxygenase, methallothionein and metal binding proteins by metals are some of the toxicant specific biomarkers (Mayer et al., 1992 Gagn and Blaise, 1993). There are essentially two parameters for biomarker assessment global reference values and comparative values. global reference values can be developed for DNA adducts, ALA-D, AChE, scope for growth, CEA, PAH-metabolites, GST, lysosomal stability, micronucleus formation, vitellogenin, MT biomarkers and comparative values can be used for ethoxyresoroufin-o-deethylase (EROD), antioxidant enzymes, peroxisomal
Thursday, April 18, 2019
Leadership and Management Styles - Essay ExampleThe three costes to effective lead atomic number 18 autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire. chthonian autocratic leading, the I tell philosophy is employed. The managers using autocratic lead instruct the staff about the necessary actions. The management either instructs or persuades the staff to do whatever is expected by the company. The autocratic approach works outdo when there is a crisis or touch and the company is required to act immediately so as to come up with a solution. Under democratic leadership, managers allow subordinates to take part in decisions but reserve the power to withdraw and retrieve the same power (Businesscasestudies.co.uk, 2015). The managers seek the opinions of all relevant subordinates before making the final decisions. Democratic leadership is a collegial and open style of conducting a team. Ideas circulate freely within the group and are openly discussed. The style functions best in environm ents where not much is taken as a constant. In Laissez-faire, the employees are trusted to make personal decisions without the interference of the management. The subordinates enjoy an almost unlimited degree of freedom.In my opinion, the best approach when managing the work of subordinates is the democratic approach. The theory behind this approach asserts that the implementer uses an I consult philosophy (Businesscasestudies.co.uk, 2015). The approach has a number of advantages which include increased motivation and creativity on the side of the employees.
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
Statistic project - Assignment ExampleIf the cipher speculation is rejected, we would recommend Yoplaits Research and Development department to start developing new flavors and products utilizing Greek yogurt. If the null hypothesis is not rejected, we would recommend Yoplait to focus instead on creating a better marketing stir so as to create a demand for its present line up of Greek products. in all data gathered in this survey are interval measures. The respondents were asked the question What factors do you consider in purchasing Greek yogurt? They were then asked to rate three factors manakin of flavors, fall of calories in to each one product and the price of the product, where 1 is the least important factor and 5 is the most important factor. establish on table 1 above, we can see that the mediocre age of respondents is 27 years old. standardized deviation is pretty high at 7.7, which meant that some of the respondents were much younger and much older than the average age.In the case of the factors considered by customers in purchasing Greek yogurt, the average rating for the variety of flavors is 4.4, descend of calories is 3.7 and price of product is at 4.0. From these rating we can already see that most respondents consider the variety of flavors the most in deciding which yogurt brand to choose. Standard deviation was 0.115475 for variety of flavor responses, 0.17266 for amount of calories responses and 0.175345 for price of product responses.3. For the purpose of this study, we bequeath use a single factor ANOVA because the responses of the respondents were numerical, entirely they were in fact categories of responses. We cannot use the t-test or z-test because we are not looking for actual increases in sales. For this study, we will use =.05, and we will test at 95% confidence level. We are also using a one-tailed test because we only want to know if adding more flavors will increase sales for Greek yogurt. genius tailed tests are alwa ys directional
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
Race in America issues - rise ExampleThis minority group has experienced numerous atrocities and injustices over the years. Likewise, racial segregation has dominated admissions in schools where whites get preference over the blacks. These inequalities intensify the abhorrence between the white and blacks to the detriment of economic and kind development in the United States. approbatory action has succeeded in remedying these inequalities and therefore it should be sustained at all cost in order to enhance a civilized baseball club as the population purports to be. Through remarkable struggles of the African American minorities, they managed to sensitize the whites to adopt mechanisms of correcting and bridging the gap occasioned by racial prejudices. Affirmative action was embraced as a result. Precisely, mere recognition and affirmation to halt past injustices is not equal remedy for the over two hundred years of racism, oppression, racial discord and discrimination. Efficie nt programs like approving action and the Voting Rights Act effectively address these injustices. The minorities contrive embraced these actions with a sigh of relief notwithstanding the cons view disprove these efforts especially affirmative action which hey accuse as reverse discrimination. Though these concur significantly addressed the issue of racism, the battle is yet uttermost from being over as several(prenominal) people would claim. Racial disorder and intense prejudice are still apparent in the society today. The African Americans still occupy the minority facet. The whites disregard them both at school and at places of work. The whites project reluctantly denied them the dignity they deserve. Admissions and recruitments are not purely on merit. From these expositions, it is apparent that racism is still a major problem and therefore these programs should not only remain in place but right on enforced too. Discrimination still persists in the fields of employment, contract businesses as well as education. An divert insight is given by evaluating the impact of affirmative action bans in education. This will deduce the requirement of retaining affirmative actions and such other measures which shall aim at improving the welfare of the racial discriminated minorities. Notably, the nation as it goes through a historical demographic transformation, there is a dire need to equally conform to all the students irrespective of their race, with apt training that will enhance the sustenance and expansion of technology and question (Garces 2012). It should not be ignored that these young stars who have been traditionally excluded, make up a far larger proportion of the future generation. Denying them these skills then the nation risks future low levels of competitiveness around the globe. Of grandness is to identify and nurture talent among all groups in order to enhance advancement (Garces 2012). Unfortunately, many states have proscribed affirmativ e action with regard to employment, education, and contracting decisions in public institutions (Garces 2012). This is to the detriment of the minority African Americans. It is a continuity of suppression towards his group. A practical example is evident in Texas State when it banned affirmative action with regard to admission in graduate education following the ruling in Hopwood v. State of Texas (Garces 2012). The ban resulted in reduced enrollment of the marginalized students in graduate studies especially in truth and medical fields (Garces 2009). The
quad Seasons Hotels EssayThe quadruple Seasons Company, as per current financial, seems very profitable and the stipend per share are increasing each year. From 1997 to 1998 EPS maturationd by 66% and from 1998 to 1999 it increased by 22%, actually from 1997 to 1999, the value has more than doubled. The main(prenominal) reason for the increase seems to be a total terminate earnings increase of 112% in two years. (See Exhibit 1 for figures). This is a result of increase in r chargeues and to a fault because costs increased less than revenues. This indicates that in addition to higher(prenominal)er sales, efficiency improvements have been hard as yearly costs for operating items dropped 68% and the interest costs also have diminish by 105%, devising it interest income. Based on this information, the company is recommended to slide by their emphasis on high personal service and quality for their hotels as the customer base are non footing sensitive but concerned about service and luxury. It is important to have non-complaining, satisfied customers as this sort is more satisfied than those w here service recovery is needed, even when service recovery is performed at a high level. Also, satisfied customers are more loyal and a key to continue having a financially inexpugnable company. A key to this development is to continue to focus on employee satisfaction and employment procedures as this is resulting in belittled turnover (compared to the industry average), highly endured and motivated staff and consequently excellent service.Also, the strong financials support follicle-stimulating hormones (costly) growth strategy, and would further indicate that the company has the back-b ane to support such a strategy.3.0 Leverage the web direct for merchandising purposesThe Four Season Hotel (FSH) should further leverage their astounding website. First, they should maximize the site for mass marketing purposes. For example, the site would allow custom ers to appreciate all FSH properties, and a customer who has never seen a FSH faeces view get ons, conference halls, restaurants etc. The website can further provide up-to-date information on vacancies, promotions, metropolis tours etc. This same information could be updated at any time to reflect specials across various(prenominal) FSH. For instance, the Milan hotel might anticipate low vacancy one week, and could attempt to fill some vacancies by listing a Milan resident special on the site e.g. with a two night stay and build up a free dinner in the restaurant.Internal marketing is other great possibility for the FSH, as long as the high tech is followed by high touch, and the system is not used to set back the human element. The intranet site should focus on cost-saving promotions, healthy competition between across respective FSHs, employee feedback pages etc. Management should use the intranet as an additional medium to disseminate information to employees and as a inwardness to obtain information from employees.An easy to use e-commerce site for the hotel would be interesting for selectFour Seasons customers. Again, this should not replace the high touch that the FSH brand is identified with, but rather add another convenience for its customers. For example, some customers like making their reservation via the Internet and having an additional option with regards to making a hotel booking could turn out overconfidently.4.0 Establish and manage a common customer awareness databaseThe hotel should alter the existing database containing guest preferences into a centralized database available to all FHS properties. This should be deemed a high priority. It would be a typical one-time fix to enhance customer satisfaction and for implementation it could leverage FSHs existing intranet platform.The main driver for a change of this sort would be its authority to further improve the FSHs customer service. For example, as existing FSH customers ar e highly concerned about time there should be no need for them to fill in forms with preferences for each new hotel they arrive at. Also, it would be perceived as impressive for the customer arriving at a new hotel where the personnel would already know their preferences. This would increase the feeling of interest and personal touch during the hotel stay and consequently enhance customer loyalty and satisfaction. Additionally, the fact that only 9% of Four Seasons hotel guests are apply tenfold properties should not lower the importance of making such a change.In fact, 9% of their customer base means that approximately 400.000 customers each year use multiple Four Seasons Hotels. (See Exhibit 1) Also, the positive word-of-mouth this change would bring will nearly likely increase the number of guests staying at multiple properties. Furthermore, as the hotel has a growth strategy, the number of hotels and rooms will continue to increase and as such enhance the need for the common database.Also, in addition to customer satisfaction, having one database for all hotels would decrease costs for the chain in the long run as it will not have to maintain 50+ different databases.5.0 Four Seasons management should solicit select feedback from customers.The idea here is quite simple and essentially comes down to ensuring that the hotel maintains its brand. The FSH has done very well by establishing a strong brand and enjoys a high % of repeat customers. Management and employees alike know what the Four Seasons stands for and the experience they aim to offer the customer. That said, and as technology races forward it is important for businesses to leverage it where possible and profitable. The key for the Four Seasons is to leverage it in a way that does not negatively impact their brand i.e. detract from the boilers suit customer experience offered by Four Seasons employees, which is highly personal, intimate and customer oriented.For example, management could solic it feedback from customers as to whether they would use an automated (electronic) checkout service and whether customers view this as something consistent with the Four Seasons brand. This selective feedback could be centralized at first in that it is sponsored by the corporate office (so as to solicit feedback that could be leveraged across all properties) and then tweaked per location to take into consideration cultural specifics etc. Findings could be leveraged across properties and stored in the central database to eventually maintain, reinforce and eventual(prenominal)ly improve the Four Seasons brand, customer experience and ultimate profitability.6.0 Implement a Seasons Pass Loyalty Program Enhancing Customer Loyalty.Implementing a Loyalty program contributes to making guests feeling special, which undoubtedly makes a difference in his or her experience. A loyalty program could even extend to other value chain partners, thereby, allowing for further tracking of guest prefere nces. Without a loyalty program, FSH loses out on building strong relationships with its guests. As switching costs are minimal, loyalty is low unless a competitor differentiates and thereby increases its odds of attracting return guests. In order to compete successfully inwardly this tier, a reputable brand name is imperative, which also represents a significant barrier to entry for potential new entrants.The common database will undoubtedly enhance the relationships because clients enjoy the sense of community that is established when creation part of a loyalty club. Therefore it is important to have mechanisms in place to ensure guests to roost loyal to FSH and choose the company as his or her accommodation provider. To facilitate this, the hotel should introduce a frequent guest card, the Seasons Pass, which will serve two functions1. Track guest activities within FSH so that their preferences can be recorded.2. Allow guests to collect points every time they stay at a Four Se asons property and use them towards service companies affiliated with Four Seasons, creating loyalty as a result. It will also aid individual FSH locations to better understand which facilities within the hotel or resort are the most sought after and will be able to segment the information based on the arena of the world or type of consumer (leisure or business). Through partnering with external companies such as high-end car renting companies, airlines, and travel agencies, FSH will be able to offer guests a solution to every decision they may encounter during their stay. Thus the Seasons Pass and the networked database will ultimately be the bridge to building and maintaining positive guest relationships.Exhibit 1 Financial data for the Four Seasons Hotels EOY 1997 to EOY 1999Exhibit 2 Number of customers using multiple Four Season Hotels each year* Assumed average coverage rate by the year is based on information in case, The Roccoco New York Hotel by Anna S. Mattila. Using the rate sodding(a) by the Roccoco New York boutique hotel.** As no information of number of customers per room is provided, one per room is assumed.
Monday, April 15, 2019
Assignment close Google EssayThe point requires the student to evaluate how successful Nintendo Wii has been in meeting the needs of todays gaming through invigorated product development. The answer here is dependent on the students ability to analyse and evaluate the sideslip study. The students are expected to make reference to retail trade mix in their answer. Students answer should include the following or former(a) equivalent answers Considerations when developing new product strategy i. Ongoing Corporate Planning ii. Ongoing Market Planning iii. Ongoing engineering Management iv. Opportunity Analysis/Serendipity . Market Penetration vi. Market Development vii. Product Development viii. variegation Application of Pearsons Uncertainty Map i. Exploratory Research ii. Development Engineering iii. Applications Engineering iv. compounding Market Opportunities Question 2 Based on the case study, how can Nintendo Wii better manage regeneration as a competitive tool in the field of developmental gaming? Answer The question requires the student to identify organization characteristics and further recommend organization changes to facilitate innovation process at heart Nintendo Wii.The answer here is dependent on the students ability to analyse and give yard for choosing any relevant issues. The organization characteristics that facilitate the innovation process, students answer should include the following or other equivalent answers i. Growth orientation ii. Vigilance and external links iii. Commitment to technology and RampD intensity iv. Acceptance of risks v. Cross function cooperation and coordination within the organization structure vi. Receptivity to change vii. berth for creativity viii. Strategy towards innovation ix. Diverse range of skills Question 1 Percentage Background of the case should be clearly discussed. 15% 2 Feasible application should be discussed in depth 15% 3 Identify the multi-dimensional concept of float glass technol ogy. 10% 4 Use of befitting language, grammar, referencing, and credit of external sources 10% Total 50% Question 2 1 Explain the dilemma, recognize the difficulties of managing uncertainty. 20% 2 Answers should be justified and must be logical and critical. 20% 3 Use of proper language, grammar, referencing, and acknowledgement of external sources 10% Total 50% Marking Scheme
Sunday, April 14, 2019
The Critical Period (1781 1789) EssayThe season period between 1781 and 1789 is often referred to as the Critical Period, and with a good reason. As a freshly formed country America had a lot to lose if it did not survive and prove its egotism to the world as well as the citizens. Going into the critical period the linked States was run on a lower floor the Articles of Confederation but the lack of a centralized government soon proved the articles to be inept.The Problems with the Articles appeared closely upon completion. The fact that full state approval was requisite to pass any official proclamation meant that recounting never had any real might. Such was the case when in 1783 the Rhode Island Assembly refused to place any taxes on imported goods. Because congress wasnt given any power to enforce the laws only suggest states enforce them the thriftiness as well as national unity suffered.The power to tax was crucial power requisite by the government. Under the Art icles of Confederation the US economy was extremely fragile having just emerged from depression. The market honour would jump thousands of dollars one year and fall the next. The power to tax was needed to help stabilize the volatilizable market.The government also needed to be centralized in order to prove to other countries they were united. Proving to be unified would allow them more leverage when dealing with foreign policies. In a speech do to congress John Jay told of negotiations with Spains Minister, Diego de Gardoqui in which Spain denied the US navigation of the Mississippi River because he didnt see the US as unified and knew there was nothing the US could do about it. The government also needed the power to create treaties and alliances, this was extremely important in the survival of the country. The United States was weakened by the war and needed alliances for protection incase of an invasion.When evaluation these documents it becomes obvious that while not complet ely ineffective, the Articles of Confederation were ultimately ineffective. Had the United States continued to operate under the articles it would have most assuredly fallen to economic and political problems.
Friday, April 12, 2019
Introduction to communication in health, social care or childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s and young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s setting Essay Example for Free
Introduction to communication in health, social c ar or childrens and schoolboyish peoples background signal EssayIt is important when communicating with people to observe their reactions, this is important for galore(postnominal) reasons as it washstand give us just about insight and indication to whether a person has mute us or not, if we have given any direction or are trying to course on education. By looking at a persons reactions we get an idea besides to how what we are saying is being received. For example if we say something to a colleague or parent we can tell by a persons reaction if what we have said has made or is making them happy, sad, confused, angry, outraged, worried or excited. If the persons face starts to change to look cross or frown therefore there is a chance you may offended, upset or made them angry, whereas if a person is smiling, laughing, joke or bright eyed they may be happy or excited. If we can learn to point out and judge these reacti ons we can adapt and adjust our communication by our tone or manner of speaking we are using accordingly.It is not only important so you can determine whether what u have essay to convey has been understood. Reactions and body language are a persons unspoken words or feelings and can at times be up to 30% of communication. If there was someone in my context of use whose reactions and or body language become or was different to that of their normal behaviour or that of judge normal behaviour and I was concerned it would be part of my job role to pick up on this and withal to communicate this to my appropriate senior within the setting.In our settings there may be many barriers a person might face in terms of communicating with one another. A common barrier is language. Others might include a learning difficulty, hearing impairment, emotional state of a person, intellect of a person, noise a sight and/or speech impairment. The list is endless some barriers are social barriers, so me emotional, some environmental. Not only is it part of our role to recognise these barriers it is also our responsibility to try to reduce defeat and eliminate them when trying to communicate effectively.An example of this would be if I had a child, parent or colleague in my setting who had a problem speaking or understanding English I may use body language and facial expressions as a form of communicating and conveying a thought or feeling. Another way I could overcome a language barrier might be to make use of one of the services the setting provides like a translator or interpreter. All of these methods are acceptable and effective ways of overcoming language barriers.Another example of a barrier to communicating would be if I was trying to have a surreptitious talk with a parent but my environment was herd and noisy, the noise would be a barrier as it might prohibit us from fully hearing one another and if it is crowded we may not be able to talk confidentially without other s hearing or listening so to eliminate the barriers it would be necessary to go somewhere private and less noisy. Confidentiality means information that is favour private not to be shared or exposed to or by anyone. This could be something that is said, a letter, a document a piece of information that is confidential. In our setting it is essential anyone disclosing and sharing information with us know that we will not share this information unless it is for the well being and safeguarding of the child. In our setting we are constantly being given confidential information whether it be medical need dietary needs educational requirements of or child protection issues.Generally we do not share confidential information with everyone but it is so important that the appropriate people and or organisations are informed and aware. If a child had special dietary requirements we would need to share this information with the staff who supervise the meal/ collation times and also the staff in the kitchen. Another time you might share information would be if you had concerns about a childs protection and wellbeing outside of the setting. In these circumstance it is our role to sensitively allow any concerns, information or observations on that young person to our line manager supervisor or someone in a higher chain of command at the setting to us.
Thursday, April 11, 2019
The novel of feel in rural disseminated sclerosis in the 1930 demonstrateShe had been making her own stories off of it. The subject was slavery and a racist, uncontaminating man published the write up book that she was given and she thought the book was wrong. She had eventu bothy got invoked due to T. J getting retaliate on her for accusing him of cheating. Mr Granger was a man who leased out sharecropping land to the black fellowship and took almost all of their money after the harvest. On top of that, the Logans had financial problems and mortgage problems. pack had to eccentric the consequences without hardly any money.Black mass had to pay their mortgage at the bank but the white people employed at the bank nevertheless caused more trouble. This novel examines numerous issues for example courage, bravery, prejudice, the top executive to succeed and the strength to survive. Black people father known that courage comes only to those who earn it. companionshi p is an important part of animation. You need people to look you up to, someone on your side so you can be brave and someone you can depend on for giving you advice if youre in trouble. You exit hardly ever see any black people and white people, as thats the way life was.Jeremy was a good friend of the Logans. Jeremy Likes T. J and the Logans Tree House and their generosity and friendship. Some white people would be scared of some blacks. I know this because of when Kaleb Wallace gazed up at Mr Morrison, then at the hand truck as if trying to comprehend the connection between the deuce. The major conflict in this story is when two white children beat up T. J and accuse him of robbing a store. The two children were the actual robbers with stockings over their faces. then the white children go to T. Js house and tried to hang and burn his whole family.The Logans try to stop this by setting fire to their own cotton field so everyone will stop to put the fire out before it reached th eir own. Luckily, the lightening had struck the cotton field. This was the turning point in Roll of Thunder, key out My Cry. Everyone stopped what they were doing just to put out the fire, including the whit people. They all worked as one without hate or dislike. This would also be considered the resolution because the prejudice is gone for a moment. The falling action is when the fire is out and everyone goes home. mummy had explained that we have no choice of what colour were born or who our parents are what we do have is some choice over what we make of our lives once were here. Something more important in our life is education. thither were two separate schools that separated the black children with the whites. Children used to travel by bus, car or just walk. Either way, there could be disaster waiting to happen whilst on the journey. Uncle Hammer gave warnings about these situations all the time. He thought that things seemed worse than usual up there.It gets hot like this an d folks get dissatisfy with life, they start looking round for somebody to take it out on. So everyone should be careful and to forever and a day be aware of danger. As I read Roll of Thunder, catch out My Cry, I have discover the particular language that the people use. They use local dialect for when they talk. The local dialect in Mississippi often involves shortening words and blurring words together as well as creating new words, for example mopin round, cuttin up, bout, farmin, yall. The apostrophes show where letters have been dropped when words are shortened.When T. J talks about friendship in several local dialect speeches. He once said to Stacey, I swear everything I told yall is the truth. I I admit I lied bout tellin on your mama, but I aint lyin now, I aint. People used to talk like this because it was shorter and easier for them to say it. There are several themes in Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry. One of them could be described as when someone feels that is bad, he can still have the superciliousness of his family and friends. Courage comes only to those who earn it could be another theme.The last theme involves the difficult situation life presents and a need to stand tall. This book, I think, was well written to let people see things by dint of a childs eye and experience their innocence and disbelief in the cruelties of life brought in by racism and prejudice. The lesson I learned in reading Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry is that when people are be to be tough, they can be especially a child. Sometimes they come out stronger than the adult in one of lifes crisis. There has been a lot of trouble in this book and people like Mama always sense trouble.She says your lucky no worse happened and were glad to have you here especially now. When fire tree had racial situations approach her, she likes to get vengeance and after she had achieved her goal, she tells herself, oh, how sweet was well-manoeuvred revenge. Now you know that if you have an apothecaries ounce of hope inside you, youll have the power to succeed and all live as one. Show lagger only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Mildred Taylor section.
Tuesday, April 9, 2019
Biggest business in america is the economy EssayUnfortunately, this topic has now been politicized, which means that you cant talk close it without be instantly cheered or jeered by fans of each respective political team. But the economy is much(prenominal) more than important than this years election or either political team.There are several(prenominal) factors that have come together to produce a frustratingly weak economy that has persisted in the unify States for more than a decade. One of those things are Globalization. It opened up a vast pool of billions of workers who for way little than Americans because theyre desperate. This messes up everything, it has resulted in companies shifting formerly middle wage paying jobs overseas. Another is Technology it has continue to increase productivity, allowing companies to do more with fewer employees.These and other factors have contributed to the most radical redistribution of wealth that the United States has ever seen . Since the late 1970s, the countrys assets and income have moved steadily from average Americans to the richest Americans. This has created a society with more intense wealth inequality than we have seen at any time since the 1920s.Fairness aside, the problem with this state of personal business is that it leaves hundreds of millions of American consumers the real engines of the economy with little silver to spend. With consumers having little money to spend, businesses suffer. As businesses suffer, they look for ship canal to cut costs. And this, in turn, hurts employees (consumers) even more.One thing to keep in mind as we forecast about how to fix this state of affairs is that this is not an era in which everyone is suffering. Everyone is not suffering. Big companies and their owners and higher-ranking managers are not suffering. They are doing great. Big companies and their owners and sr. managers, in fact, are doing better that the have through with(p) at any time inhis tory, at least judging by the amount of value they are producing. Its everyone else who is getting hosed.Now, in the current political environment, you cant make an observation like that without being pegged as an anti-business socialist or communist. So, its important to emphasize that there is nothing anti-business about this observation. I secure dont believe that great businesses exist solely to capture profits and steer cash into the pockets of their owners. When a free-market economy is functioning well, as the American economy did for most of the 1950s, 1960s, 1980s, and 1990s, the benefits of the system accrue to all participants, namely Owners and senior managersCustomersEmployeesSociety at largeWhen the system gets out of balance, however, the benefits begin to accrue disproportionately to one or two of of the constituencies at the expense of the others and thats the situation were in now. The benefits of our free-market capitalist system which, by the way, is the best economical system on the planet, by a mile are accruing disproportionately to owners, managers, and customers, at the expense of everyone else.If we rattling want to put some effort into fixing our economy, we have to fix that. Specifically, we have to persuade companies and their owners to apply more employees and share more of their immense wealth and profits with them. Most importantly, companies dont need to do this well(p) for altruistic reasons (though no one would object if they did). If enough companies do this, they will not just dish out their employees. They will help their future sales growth. Because their employees and customers, the American consumers, will then have more money to spend.Bibliography sourcesInternetOnline adsEncyclopedia
Monday, April 8, 2019
The gamy woman EssayAs a woman requireer, Elizabeth Blackwell strived to become someone in life. She influenced mothers, children, wives, and sisters and showed them how strength could lead them to their dreams. Her family and friends discouraged her, but she kept going in her own direction. They told her how impossible it would be to become a woman doctor and she asked them why she should not be a doctor. They had no reasons to tell her, but tied(p) if they had one, it was not useful, so she still kept going no matter what the challenge and hard quantify she faced. After all what she went through, Elizabeth Blackwell accomplished her dream by becoming the first woman doctor. Elizabeth influenced women to become more confident in their own ideas and skills. Like other women who followed Elizabeth Blackwells idea, I am inspired by her persistence in life even if I face hard ways, it is good to follow my dreams and spark by my own destination. I want to attend Regina friar pr eacher High inform, because I want to be like Blackwell and pursue my goals without hesitation and fear of other peoples discouragement.Elizabeths strength has had an match on me because she is the kind of woman who proved that women are not the bottom of society they are the exit of society and equal to men. Her impact on me is that women can become whatever they want and equal with everyone. As a woman leader, Elizabeths strength will help me to develop my dexterity, put out my creativeness in front of people, and follow my dreams to become a doctor.As long as I am doing what is expected of me, even if people are putting me down, I just have to be obdurate to fulfill my dreams. To develop as a global leader, use any chance I thrum to disprove people who may have the wrong impression about me. Regina Dominican High School has its own belief in its students, and I am 100% sure that if I attend the Regina Dominican High School in the next four years, I will be like Elizabeth Bl ackwell and discover my goal.
Sunday, April 7, 2019
Time Catherine and Rodolfo EssayEddie asks Rodolfo if he has ever boxed sooner. Rodolfo says no, and Eddie asks if he would alike him to show him how it done. Reluctantly Rodolfo agrees. Rodolfo doesnt want to box, but he is so desperate to please Eddie that he agrees. Eddie barely wants to make a fool appear of Rodolfo. After the fight it is as if the fight has enlightened Rodolfo, he now half realises, that Eddie dislikes him completely, and there is nonhing he can do to correct that. Rodolfo asks Catherine to dance. This is done to tantalise Eddie, and it works still as Rodolfo wished it to. We now come to the end of act 1.We stupefy tallyn most aspects of individually persons personality, and where they stand in the story. WE shall now discover what lengths each character will go to, to have his/her accept way. Alfieri introduces this act, back in the roll of narrator. He tells us the date, the 23rd of December. He also tells us that it is the firstly time Cather ine and Rodolfo have been alone in the house together. One of the earlier excuses Eddie had given to Catherine why she should not hook up with Rodolfo, was because Eddie thought all that Rodolfo wanted from her was rights to be a citizen.Catherine asks Rodolfo, as a test, if she wanted to, if they could active in Italy when they get married. Rodolfo hates the idea, which just now worries Catherine even more. It seems now that everyone except Eddie and Catherine realise Eddies infatuation with Catherine is serious. And here, Catherine starts to realise it too. When Eddie gets headquarters and realises that Catherine and Rodolfo have slept together Eddie goes mad and his immediate reaction is to tell Rodolfo to pack his bags and leave. Catherine faces up to the situation in the end and tells Eddie that she must go with Eddie.Eddie denies her the right completely and refuses to let Catherine go. In Catherines next piece of dialogue we see all her problems come out in her words. Sh e loves Eddie, but not in the same way that he loves her. She wants to stay with Rodolfo because she is the one she truly loves, but Eddie does not want Catherine to go with Rodolfo, and Catherine knows this and does not want to folie Eddie. She knows that she must upset Eddie, as it is the only way out of the situation. Eddie tells her that she Aint goin nowheres And then he kisses her on the lips. why does he do that, is he finally facing up to his feelings?Rodolfo lunges at Eddie in anger, but Rodolfo is no match for Eddie, and Eddie merely pins him and then kisses him. This kiss is to ridicule Rodolfo, to show Catherine that she should not marry someone so weak as to let another slice kiss him. Or maybe he does this because he thinks that Rodolfo is homosexual. After this scene the play suddenly calms down and becomes certainly more serene. Alfieri narrates, and then turns to when Eddie comes to see him. From what Eddie says, it seems that Eddie got his way. He tells Alfieri that Beatrice is renting a room for Marco and Rodolfo.Eddie wants to know again, if there is anything he can do. Alfieri tells him, Morally and legally you have no rights, you cannot stop it she is a free agent. This is in regard to Rodolfo marrying Catherine. When Eddie finally excepts it. A telephone glows on the opposite side of the stage, and Alfieri realises what Eddie is going to do. He shouts after him, You wont have a friend in the world Eddie Even those who understand will turn against you, even the ones who feel the same will scorn you Put it out of your mind Eddie This is the last piece of advice Eddie is given, and he does not listen to it.He telephones the in-migration bureau and reports two illegal immigrants. At home he acts as if he has done nothing. He argues with Beatrice normally, as if he has no guilt for what he has done. Catherine tells Eddie of her and Rodolfos plans of marriage. He gets upset despite the fact that he knows they will never marry. Just befor e the immigration officers arrive, Eddie realises what he has done and screams at Beatrice and Catherine to get Rodolfo and Marco out of the house, but it is too late. The immigration officers arrive, both Beatrice and Catherine realise what Eddie has done.Catherine streaks into the bedroom and Beatrice stares at him in horror. Eddie tries to deny it. still there is nothing he can do. He has done it now. The scene now is all of his friends, deviation him, just like Alfieri said they would, one by one they leave Eddie standing there alone, and they only person left is Beatrice. The next scene involves Marco, Alfieri, Catherine and Rodolfo. Alfieri tells Marco that there is a chance that Rodolfo can stay and marry Catherine, but he will have to go back to his country, but as long as he promises not to try to kill or in any way harm Eddie, he could possibly get bail.Marco finds it difficult, but agrees that he will not harm Eddie. The scene changes back to just before the wedding, Ed die will not permit Beatrice to go to the wedding, Catherine is outraged, and tries to dribble Beatrice but they are interrupted by Rodolfo who shouts, Marco is coming, Eddie He knows that Marco will kill Eddie, but Eddie will not move, no matter how much Beatrice tries to persuade him. Rodolfo tries to apologise to Eddie, is he apologising because hes not a man or because he is more than a man?Eddie wants to fight to prove that he is a man, and Marco wants to fight to show people what he did to him, to get his vindicate in a way. Eddie seems to be finding it hard to stay sain. Eddie could easily walk away, but he doesnt want to because of Sicilian honour. The knife, which Eddie is ready to kill Marco with, kills him. His lasts words are to Beatrice, which is interesting, and shows that maybe thats what it took for him to realise that what he had before with Beatrice meant so much more.The play finishes with a speech by Alfieri. A line, which means a lot, is For that I think I w ill love him more than any of my sensible clients It is making a gambol out of a clearly unfunny situation, but it lightens the play, and it is a good time to put it in. It finishes with And so I mourn him I admit it with a certain alarm. This is a very good situation to end the play. Alfieri was the unbiased character who gave us an all-round view, and was a good friend to all the characters involved.
Saturday, April 6, 2019
Causes and Consequences of the Montgomery Bus ostracise EssayThe leader of the Bus Boycott was a local preacher called Martin Luther King who formed the Montgomery Improvement Association to orgnaise the boycott and the declare made him the leader of the obscure Civil Rights Movement until his assassination. SO no Montgomery Bus Boycott, no non-violent direct action, no I have a Dream speech, no Million-Men march etc. 5. During the Boycott, the Ku Klux Klan attacked the homes of Black leaders this turned public opinion against the Whites.From then on public opinion, specially in the north, gain the Federal Government openly supported Black Civil Rights. 6. Rosa Parkes became the mother of the Civil Rights elbow grease a role model, not only for Blacks, but also for women. In particular, the bus boycott showed familiar Black men-and-women-in-the-street that little as they could do individually nevetheless, if they stood together and each did their little bit, that we shall overcome adept day.
Friday, April 5, 2019
Habeas lead and the War on Terror EssayIn this paper I will be diving in to the history of Habeas principal sum and how it has evolved over the years. I will briefly explain the origination of the habeas corpus, the role it plays in U. S. A and what current action is organism taken about it. I will be also searching in to the Bush organisation and the way they dealt with habeas corpus. The original purpose of habeas corpus was to bring bulk into court rather than out of impounding and by the year 1230, the writs utility for that purpose was a well-known aspect of side of meat common law. cognize as the Great judicial writ, its codification into slope law came by way of fantan in the Habeas Corpus Act of 1641, created in response to the King of Englands actions during what is now referred to as Darnells Case. In Darnell, five English noblemen were thrown and twisted into the castles dungeon deep for failure to support their countrys dual wars against France and Spain. Th e men filed suit, requesting the King show an explanation as to their imprisonment. King Charles ref employmentd, on review the court upheld the monarchys steadfast silence, stating that the law did not require the King to provide each justification for their detention.The public outcry against this decision was deafening, prompting Parliamentary action the following year. Parliament expanded habeas rights several years later with the Habeas Corpus Act of 1679, additionally requiring charges to be brought within a specific time period for anyone detained for criminal acts. By 1765, habeas corpus was firmly imbedded within the foundation of English law, as noted by William Blackstone, who soak upd the Great Writ as a second magna carta, a stable bulwark of our liberties.This fundamental English right successfully traversed the Atlantic Ocean when our founders incorporated the principle of habeas corpus into the U. S. Constitution. As stated, The privilege of the Writ of Habeas C orpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it. Known as the Suspension Clause, this provision specifically places the ability to suspend habeas corpus in the hands of Congress only during times of rebellion or invasion. Despite the clarity of the clause, the American debate on habeas corpus only begins at this point.The Great Writ of habeas corpus has long had an iconic status as the writ of liberty which ensured that no individual could be detained in prison without being put to trial by a jury of his peers. check to the tralatitious version, popularized by Whiggish constitutional writers from the late seventeenth century onwards, the English constitution as embodied in the common law had, since time immemorial, striven to protect the fundamental rights of Englishmen and women, which included the right to personal liberty obban, M. Halliday, P. D. (2011).Habeas Corpus is an ancient common law prerogative writ a leg al procedure to which you beat an positive right. It is an extraordinary remedy at law. Upon proper application, or even on naked knowledge alone, a court is empowered, and is avocation bound, to issue the Extraordinary Writ of Habeas Corpus commanding one who is restraining liberty to straight off produce before the court the person who is in custody and to show because why the liberty of that person is being restrained.Absent a sufficient showing for a proper restraint of liberty, the court is duty bound to order the restraint eliminated and the person discharged. Habeas Corpus is fundamental to American and all other English common law derivative systems of jurisprudence. It is the ultimate lawful and peaceable remedy for adjudicating the providence of libertys restraint. Robertson. J, (2002).After the attacks of 11 September 2001, came the war in Afghanistan followed by the war in Iraq a two-pronged elaboration collectively known as the Global War on Terror As U. S. rmed fo rces captured antagonist belligerents by the M35 truckload, the Bush administration pondered how to systematically detain such persons in a manner that would provide tolerable detention while maintaining intelligence-gathering capabilities vital to the war efforts. The answer was found on the island of Cuba Guantanamo Bay. U. S. naval forces have assiduous this site since 1903, and it seemed to provide the perfect solution. Relying on the Courts previous precedent in Johnson v. Eisentrager, govemment officials believed that keeping competitor combatants international the realm of U.S. territory would preclude such individuals filing, among other things, claims for habeas corpus review.The govemments legal slope was tested almost as quickly as the detainees arrived. Beginning in 2002, the United States transported captured enemy combatants to the empyrean of Guantanamo Bay known as Camp X-Ray. Applications for writs of habeas corpus by Guantanamo detainees were made as early as February 2002. In Coalition of Clergy v. Bush, the U. S. District Court for the Central District of California first approached this issue in line with govemment expectations.Relying on Johnson v. Eisentrager, the court held that several U. S. citizens under the Coalition of Clergy, Lawyers, and Professors who had filed show cause petitions on behalf of enemy combatants held at Guantanamo Bay lacked standing to assert claims on behalf of the detainees. The court further concluded that, even if petitioners did have standing, this court lacked legal power to entertain those claims. Moreover, the court found that no federal court would have jurisdiction over petitioners claims, so there is no basis to transfer this matter to another federal rule court.Because Guantanamo Bay remained outside U. S. sovereignty, the case closely mirrored that of Eisentrager As a result, the United States failed to maintain jurisdiction and the court dismissed the petition. In response to the terroris t attacks of September 11, 2001, Congress passed the Authorization for Use of Military depict which grants the President power to use all necessary and appropriate force against all who either participated in any way in those attacks or gave refuge to those who participated.Under this authority, the Department of Defense ordered several enemy combatants to be transferred to Guantanamo Bay for detention. In Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, a plurality of the Court recognized that the ability to detain individuals act in arm conflict against the United States was so fundamental and accepted an incident to war as to be an exercise of the necessary and appropriate force Congress has authorized the President to use. Notwithstanding this unmistakable sanction of detention, the Court held that the citizen-detainee seeking to challenge his classification as an enemy combatant must collect notice of the factual basis for his classification, and a fair opportunity to rebut the Governments factual asser tions before a neutral decision maker. The Court suggested that this could be done by an appropriately authorized and properly conventional war machine tribunal. Pond, B. C. (2009). The rationale for the U. S. detention policy derives from the Bush administrations comprehensive military order issued on November 13, 001, which is intend to govern the Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War against Terrorism. Purportedly modeled after a resolve and military order issued by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during World War II, President Bushs military order limits the use of military commissions to any non-citizen for whom the president determines is or was a member of al Qaeda, has committed, support or abetted, or conspired to commit terrorist acts, or has knowingly harbored one or more of these individuals.Several months after the issuance of this military order, the administration began using the term enemy combatant to describe those subject to d etention and trial by military commission. The administrations definition of enemy combatant, however, has varied over time. The administration sometimes uses the enemy combatant stigmatise as a term of art to describe a new and unique category of combatant in the post 9/11 world.On other occasions, the administration uses the term generically to describe what traditionally has been called lawful and unlawful combatants, while at other times the term is used synonymously with unlawful combatants. According to this definition, the term enemy combatant is not limited to war combatants alone, but includes anyone who has aided terrorist organizations fighting against the United States, including those who may have unwittingly given financial support to al Qaeda. The junction Chiefs of Staff issued a slightly different definition of enemy combatant on March 23, 2005.According to Joint Publication 3-63, entitled Joint Doctrine for Detainee Operations, the term enemy combatant describes a new category of detainee and includes, but is not necessarily limited to, a member or agent of Al Qaeda, Taliban, or another international terrorist organization against which the United States is engaged in an armed conflict. Staab, J. B. (2008). Conclusion The premise behind habeas corpus as stated is to bring people into court rather than out of imprisonment. However in my opinion, during the Bush administration, they found a way around this law so as to not have to give a trial.While I want justice standardised the next person, I would not like to be in a situation where I am being held under the pretence that I a criminal without evidence or a trial. I am not saying that the people held were/are innocent, but I cant back up but to think we cannot be sure. I think that capturing these people were also done out of visit and thus not urging anyone to think of their right. The 9/11 attack was gut ranching and frankly something I never want to experience again, so I do unders tand the need to prate less and carry a big stick.From an honest stand point, after 9/11 I was scared to do anything, while I am of no Middle Eastern decent, I look like an Indian person from India, that meant no one ask you where you are from when they look at you suspiciously. evening with all the rights I have in the U. S. A if I was suspected of being suspicious and someone higher and more powerful said that I had dealing with terrorists activities, no one will honestly believe me because of the way I look. Bring me to my point that without a trial we cannot tell for sure of the people being held in Cuba was innocent or guilty without a trail.
The Benefits Of FDI To MNCsGlobalisation commenced after the World War II, but grew explicitly after the mid-1980s driven by the technological progress as swell as rising liberalization of trade and majuscule markets.However, according to Hood and materialisation (2000) globalisation began at the time of World Economic Crisis in 1970 (Asian crisis, embrocate crisis, post-Vietnam war). During that time Western industrialized countries experienced slow down in economies, reduction in net profit as well as strong competition. As a result, the pursuit st placegies were used in secernate to tackle these problems cheap labor usage in manufacturing process, new market exploration as well as strategic alliances formation.MNCs began to cut their costs by utilizing cheap labor from developing countries, such as Mexico, Tunisia and Taiwan. (Hood and Young, 2000)According to Strange (1997) observations globalization has increased mobility of capital, knowledge and information. (Hood N. a nd Young S., 2000)The globalization process has let multinationals appetency to optimize market competitive variable and costs within a liberalizing trade and investment environment. (Hood N. and Young S., 2000).During the process of globalisation following institutions were established the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), General bargain on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), as well as World Trade Organisation (WTO). The later compete a significant intention in favouring free trade, instead of protectionism.FDI deregulationhas played an important role for investment into privatezed firms as well as the domestic economy growth and price stabilization. . (Hood N. and Young S., 2000) leave behind research moreMore information in terms of deregulation should be at generator when you start the globalizationBenefits of FDIMNCs whitethorn be motivated to undertake foreign direct investment to dumbfound more demand as well as get into the markets where they could generate great er profits. Both these motives atomic number 18 usually based on opportunities to get higher revenues in foreign markets. Other motives are associate to the cost efficiency, when using foreign factors of production raw materials or technology. Moreover, MNCs may be involved in FDI in order to protect foreign to protect their foreign market share, to respond to exchange rate changes, or to evade trade restrictions (can be used in conclusions)For instance, a party considering FDI in Asia or USA may still be attracted by Asia callable to higher growth potential for a connection as well as higher profit margins. Moreover, if case the topical anaesthetic currency depreciates at that place will be little costs necessary to establish a subsidiary.MNCs may decrease its moving picture to economic conditions by expanding their business activities between different economies.When foreign direct investment occurs, constant review article is needed in order to anticipate whether furth er expansion should take place. The decision is influenced by the economic conditions in the subsidiarys unsophisticated, parents country, host country government as well as MNCs experience in operate abroad.MNCs which will not experience problems will be the ones which will employ local labour as well as manuacture the goods that invite no direct substitutes in a foreign country.Usually the archetype FDI is the one by the means of which the problems of local unemployment and technological scarcity is solved with no threat to the local firms.Global markets join those who may offer capital and those who require capital, hence promoting economic growth. Moreover, global markets make out pleasant conditions for mutually beneficial trading.Economists tend to favour free flow of capital due to the following reasonsGet the highest rate of returnReduce the hazard by shifting the lending and investment.Huge corporations, like Coca-Cola, Nestle, and Gillette took avail of the globali sation by spreading their multinational operations across boarders, hence to become more competitive, pile up global demand as well as cut their production costs.1Investing into emerging markets has brought practically of success to these companies.Like any investor, an MNC is valuating its chance and return, when forming international projects. The portfolio of all projects determines the MNC as a whole.In fact, the hazardier the country, the less belike the investors will invest, however this might anticipate higher returns.In fact, risky project may offer negative returns, however a high-risk alliance might be successful and realize high returns, for example, Google. Lower risk investment is likely to offer positive returns. Therefore, when choosing a portfolio a company should evaluate how much extra return is needed in order to offset the extra risk or how much extra return the company is ready to sacrifice in order to have lower risk. Project portfolios generate higher returns than the individual ones due to the diversification characteristics. The less the correlation in project returns the less should be the project portfolio risk.Along the efficient frontier of project portfolios, there is no portfolio to be said as an optimal for all MNCs. This is due to the fact that MNCs differ in grooming to accept risk. If the MNC is very cautious and may select between the portfolios reflected by the frontier it will probably favour one that shows low risk. However, more risk tolerant strategy would be to undertake the projects risk return close to the top of frontier.In fact, the location of frontier is determined by the business MNC is undertaking. For example, Euroblade plc trades steel only to European markets, then its frontier of efficient project portfolios indicate high risk, as this company sells only one product as well as it trades with countries whose economies are correlated. However, Uniliver plc sells variety of products worldwide, hence d ue its diversified range is less exposed to the project portfolio risk.Here is assumed that the Uniliver plc is well informed round all the products as well as the markets where it operates.MNCs may get more attractive risk-return from the projects portfolios if they enough diversify among products as well as geographic markets. Moreover, it mayHowever if it is a new company it international investment activity is affected by the country risk. The risks may overtake the returns. For exampleConclusionsUsual pauperization for foreign direct investment relates to international diversification. This lets MNC to stabilise its cash flows as well as lessens its risk exposure. Such a goal is desirable because it may reduce the firms cost of financing. International projects may let the company to be exposed to lower risk than if undertaking solely domestic projects and not sacrificing its evaluate returns.International diversification impacts risk reduction if FDI is performed in countri es whose economies are low correlated to MNCs home country economy.
Thursday, April 4, 2019
Il barren Practices of vacatehand RegimesShould hearty-favoured societies sustain narrow-minded practices? Discuss with reference to Kukathas.Most giving democracies would claim to be openhanded societies with hardly both or no looseningriction on openhanded practices such(prenominal)(prenominal) as license of speech, license of sacred belief, or freedom of information. However, not all of the all-encompassing societies overhear the same levels of narrow practices potentially restricting the freedom of their citizens. resistant societies need to consider whether they should survive il across-the-board practices for various hard-nosed and theoretical reasons. Not all of the self-aggrandizing societies be the same and in that locationfore take into account different levels of narrow practices. The level of illiberal practices that liberal societies will plump for can depend, as will be discussed, on whether there ar threats to those societies than can justify illiberal practices universe used to safeguard those liberal societies from great damage. Alternatively, toleration of illiberal practices depends on whether any particular liberal society sees a need to substitute when opposite liberal societies would not. The following discussion, as to whether liberal societies should tolerate illiberal practices, is with reference to the arguments of Chandran Kukathas in the large-minded Archipelago and his other works. Kukathas and his work open aroused controversy especially with regard to whether minority assemblys should receive special protection or special treatment in liberal societies, for instance being able to set up their children in separated schools. Discussions of liberal societies have shifted in tenseness to pluralism and whether it should be gain groundd or not. That change of emphasis from past get bys occurred due to a greater recognition of the change magnitude diversity in multicultural societies and th e increased neighborly conflicts or disagreement that can entail.No liberal society is free to operate without restraints, whether those are legal restraints or illiberal practices that have evolved over time or have been applied upon an ad hoc basis. Liberal societies have to find a balance between the greatest amount of freedom for either individual within those societies with the need to maintain stability plus law and order. Liberal democracies are regarded as the best form of state that allows liberal societies to flourish with the least number of illiberal practices ( comforter, 1993 p. 345). Kukathas himself contends that although not sodding(a) in practice that democratic states have been kinder and gentler rulers (Kukathas, 2003 p. 195). A problem with the toleration of illiberal practices is that peoples definitions of illiberal practices differs widely and is entirely subjective. The illiberal practices of some people are the necessary and common thought measures ad vocated by others to maintain law and order. Liberalist measures do not n onenesstheless have to be introduced by liberal societies, for instance Russia, France, and Prussia in the 18th century or present day China have select stinting liberalism without slightening the authoritarian grip of the state (Held, 1996 p. 70). The acceptable level of illiberal practices tolerated in liberal societies is dependent on how much interference from the state in the governmental, economic and social spheres of societies is considered justified. Liberalism as a political, economic and social concept had evolved and changed over the centuries. Liberalism has been subject to changes and trends just like the other ideologies such as socialism and conservatism. In its original guise liberalism called for the minimum amount of state interference as contingent in social and economic affairs. Liberalism contends that states were only needed to ensure that people had basic legal rights and that the spot of the wealthy or businesses was protected. This classical liberalism was linked to the political ideas of John Locke and the economic liberalism of Adam Smith amongst others. Kukathas finds Lockes views appealing, as Locke was a hearty supporter of religious toleration and freedom of conscience (Held, 1996 p. 70).Classical liberalism stresses the freedom of individuals to do what they like, when they like and be free to use their money and their property as they like. New liberalism, which actual towards the end of the 19th century, stresses the importance of society and the role that the state has in providing welfare as well as promoting equating. Adherents of both types of liberalism claim that their form of liberalism is the true form, making the other redundant. Classical liberalism gives a greater scope for the acceptance of illiberal practices as it stresses minimum state intervention. On the other hand, naked as a jaybird liberalism is to a greater extent likely n ot to tolerate illiberal practices, particularly if those practices prevent welfare provision and social equality (Schumpeter, 1954 p.394).Aside from maintaining law and order plus preventing the poorest starving to death, no illiberal, or for that matter well-intentioned liberal practices, were to be tolerated, that was the belief at the centre of classical liberalism. Liberal societies emerged at different times and at different rates. Economic liberalism often emerged before political and social liberalism. This would explain how illiberal societies could embrace economic liberalism without embracing political and social liberalism. From the 19th century a to a greater extent proactive form of liberalism termed new liberalism emerged that interjectd in societies to tackle social and economic problems such as basic levels of welfare provision. As the twentieth century progressed liberal societies embraced further interventions to ensure full employment and to counter social issue s such as race and gender discrimination. The issues of diversity and multiculturalism have changed the debates over the illiberal practices that liberal societies should tolerate. These issues have added complexity as to how illiberal is defined and whether some groups should have their illiberal practices tolerated to further diversity or whether no illiberal practices should be tolerated from any group (Bellamy in Eatwell Wright 2003 p.33). The post war consensus on high spending liberal democracies with ever expanding social and welfare commissariat, with an increasing emphasis on the pluralist nature of liberal societies was challenged by neo-liberals such as Fredrich von Hayek and John Rawls. It was such views that had a strong influence upon Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan (Bellamy in Eatwell Wright, 2003 p.39). Hayek and Rawls have also turn out influential on Kukathas ideas concerning liberal societies tolerating illiberal practices. Rawls cogitates that economic l iberalism needs to be combined with social justice. It is Rawls later(prenominal) works that interested Kukathas the or so as Rawls displays libertarian views that he shares with Kukathas. Rawls thought that distinct heathenish or religious groups should receive differing levels of toleration depending on the extent to which they can be allowed an equal place within a just system of liberty (Rawls, 1993).Kukathas himself is an advocate of classical liberalism where state intervention is kept to the lowest practicable minimum rather than later versions of liberalism in which the state intervenes much frequently to achieve set economic, social, and political aims. Kukathas has provoked debate by stating in his works that the states of liberal societies should not even intervene to assist the interests of minority ethnic or religious groups, liberal societies should only permit the toleration of these groups. Kukathas believes that the toleration accorded to such groups should no t be dependent on how liberal the internal practices of such groups are. Once groups have trustworthy toleration thusly they can run themselves as they please as long as they are not breaking any laws. If any individual members of these groups are unhappy then they should not touch sensation to liberal societies to help them, all they need to do is admit their particular group. Liberal societies should not promote the interests of any groups ahead of all the groups, or any particular sector within society no matter how well intended its motives are, also they should not make such treatment conditional. Toleration is adept to the whole of society special treatment for individuals and groups is not. Discrimination in favour of certain groups does not service them in the long term and is harmful to society (Kukathas, 2003 p. 5). Kukathas regards all groups that form voluntarily to be enhancing liberal society, which includes those with illiberal practices. States are the main act ors that threaten liberal society when they restrict such groups. The illiberal practices of these groups big businessman not be illegal activities and whilst they remain within the law, no action should be taken against such groups. The motivations for such groups to form can be due to a sense of being different from the rest of society. If liberal societies are truly open and democratic, then they should accept that some people are hostile to the majority of the populations beliefs and behaviours. For people that wish to safeguard their diversity forming separate groups is a means to live how they urgency to live. To such groups illiberal practices are a way of maintaining their distinctiveness from the rest of their society. Groups may also believe that their illiberal practices are not illiberal at all and can be justified as part of their culture and beliefs (Kukathas, 2003 p. 36).There is one freedom that Kukathas believes that liberal societies should promote preceding(pr enominal) all other freedoms and rights, which is freedom of conscience. Freedom of conscience is so important for the proper functioning of liberal societies that these societies should be lively to tolerate illiberal practices to ensure that freedom of conscience is maintained for the maximum number of people and groups within each liberal society. Allowing freedom of conscience is perhaps the best way of achieving and maintaining a diverse and multicultural liberal society. Governments should not intervene in the internal matters of illiberal groups to remove their illiberal practices. If illiberal practices are based upon the freedom of conscience of individuals or groups then liberal societies should tolerate such practices. If individual members of such groups change their opinions and no longer accept the groups ideological or religious viewpoints then they can leave the group. As long as individual members are free to leave, then there are no reasons to end the illiberal pr actices of such groups (Kukathas, 2003 p.36).Kukathas does admit that some members of these groups may find it more onerous to leave than others could, for instance women and children. Women in such groups may face disadvantages such as being unable to support themselves outside of their groups through lack of education and skills. Groups may also be difficult to leave because they use propaganda to persuade doubters to remain or intimidate members into staying within the group. Kukathas again argues that liberal societies should tolerate those illiberal practices if groups ultimately allow members to leave them. As soon as illiberal practices become spirit threatening to members that wish to leave then it is appropriate for liberal societies to stop tolerating illiberal practices. Therefore, state ravishment into the illiberal practices of groups should be a last resort rather than undertaken lightly or with little obeisance for their freedom of conscience and joining (Kukatha s, 2003 p. 107). Kukathas contends that there are two main types of religious or social groups. There are those groups that are a Union of acquaintance and those groups that are a Federation of Liberty. States are less likely to intervene in the affairs of the Union of Liberty groups than they are to intervene with a Federation of Liberty group. Groups that are a Union of Liberty type are less likely to have illiberal practices, whilst members are more likely to be able to leave these groups without any obstructions. In contrast the groups which are Federation of Liberty type are more likely to have illiberal practices and are more likely to prevent members leaving their fold. The Union of Liberty groups are more likely to have a strategy over shared property rights and the rights of children to leave their membership, as the parents chose to heart and the children did not (Kukathas, 2001 p. 43).When liberal societies opt to tolerate social and political freedoms such as freedom o f religion and conscience they are voluntarily restricting their rights to intervene in the internal affairs of political or religious groups. However, the rights of states to intervene to restrict such freedoms still remain. The rights to intervene and therefore no longer tolerate illiberal practices can be used if or when groups abuse their freedoms to abuse others. Such views are roam forward by those that disagree with Kukathas willingness to tolerate more illiberal practices rather than less.Kukathas views on pluralism and multiculturalism plus whether illiberal practices should be tolerated have been criticised by many contemporary liberal writers and academics. Those that argue against Kukathas views on tolerating illiberal practices most notably include Will Kymlicka. Kymlicka contends contrary to Kukathas that liberal societies are justified in denying toleration to ethnic or religious groups that have an illiberal or authoritarian hold over their members. Kymlicka sees t hat the majority of liberal societies tolerate illiberal practices not through choice but because of their benign negligence. Kymlicka views the tolerance of illiberal practices in liberal societies as being undesirable, especially when that the freedoms of individuals are subordinated to the freedoms of the illiberal groups that they belong to (Kymlicka, 1995 p. 239). Liberal societies should not have to tolerate illiberal practices especially when these societies have the ability to stop such illiberal practices at any point they wish to. Liberal societies should certainly end illiberal practices before the freedom and the safety of group members is at risk. Freedom of conscience should not be given priority over freedom of association or speech. At no point should liberal societies decide to place freedom of conscience above the personal safety of any of its citizens. Whilst the state in liberal societies should not have to decide on whether groups should allow their members to l eave, the state does have a duty to uphold law and order or prevalent safety or if they are under actual or potential threat. Kymlicka argues that illiberal practices are soft recognisable. Illiberal practices occur when groups only if assign particular roles and duties to people, and prevent people from questioning or revising them (Kymlicka, 1995 p.94).Brian Barry is another critic of the concept that liberal societies should accept or tolerate illiberal practices. Barry is arguing from a different viewpoint than Kymlicka when he criticises Kukathas for proposing that liberal societies should tolerate illiberal practices. Unlike Kymlicka, Barry is not a strong advocate of multiculturalism. In fact he argues that multiculturalism can introduce illiberal practices in to liberal societies that should not be tolerated. The basis of his arguments against the illiberal practices linked to multiculturalism are that minority ethnic and religious groups should not be allowed to exclusive ly educate their own children. For if these groups educate such children then they may not learn rough equality and political moderation. If not monitored groups educating their own children can pass on religious and political extremism on to them. The governments of liberal societies have shown most concern over Islamic schools and the perception that they will increase illiberal practices. Muslims argue that their children are not catered for in non-Islamic schools. For instance, Britain has not provided public funding for Islamic schools, although it does for Christian and Judaic schools. In Northern Ireland, separate Roman Catholic and Protestant schools have arguably helped to maintain the sectarian divisions. By contrast, the French have kept their schools strictly secular since the revolution and will not tolerate Muslims (or any other religious group) trying to bring religious elements into schools. Education is a vital domain to consider when it comes to deciding if libe ral societies should tolerate illiberal practices. Therefore, deciding what should or should not be permitted and taught in schools is a highly contentious area. In the wake of the 9/11 attacks there has been a adpressed scrutiny of the education that Muslims receive in schools and mosques and whether tolerating illiberal practices is good or bad for the security of liberal societies (Barry, 2001).Therefore, to some extent liberal societies should tolerate illiberal practices with certain limitations to operate. Liberal societies have to maintain a balance between all the individuals and groups within them. A Liberal society usually attempts to give individuals and groups as much freedom as possible, which is what distinguishes liberal societies from illiberal societies. It should be remembered that illiberal practices are not needfully illegal and that the state will not intervene if groups with illiberal practices keep their activities legal. Liberal societies tend to tolerate as much as they can. Toleration though has limits. Liberal societies will not tolerate illiberal practices that threaten the safety of individuals or that risk breaking down law and order or inciting furiousness between groups on racial, ethnic or religious grounds. There are political, social and philosophical arguments as to why illiberal practices should or should not be tolerated. Kukathas strongest arguments in favour of tolerating illiberal practices is that allowing individuals or groups freedom of conscience is more important than the liberal or illiberal nature of their practices. For Kukathas toleration is the key to achieving a well- balanced diverse multicultural liberal society. Toleration is more important than making special provisions for minority groups, which are discriminatory and counter-productive. Critics of Kukathas counter his arguments by stating that liberal societies should not tolerate any illiberal practices that restrict the freedom of individuals, espec ially if such illiberal practices place people in danger. Much of the debate between Kukathas and his critics hinges around the rights of individuals to leave groups with illiberal practices. The thorniest issue regarding individuals leaving groups is whether children have to remain in these groups even when they did not chose to join in the first place. Kukathas contends that groups should be tolerated as long as members are free to leave. Critics of Kukathas believe that groups with illiberal practices should change those illiberal practices or at least guarantee that members can leave whenever they want to before they are tolerated within liberal societies. Critics of groups with illiberal practices point to the problems that members of these groups can face, such as not been educated, being educated with extremist views, being physically and mentally abused or simply forced to stay in these groups. Governments should not stand by and let those things happen if they can be preven ted. The arguments over the toleration of illiberal practices in liberal societies have been brought in to greater focus in relation to issues concerning religious and political extremism, particularly in relation to Islam. The dividing lines between promoting diversity and multiculturalism on the one hand or appeasing to illiberal and possibly illegal practices can be blurred.BibliographyBarry B, (2001) Culture and par An egalitarian critique of multiculturalism, order Press, CambridgeBellamy R Liberalism in Eatwell Wright (2003) Contemporary Political Ideologies 2nd Edition, Continuum, LondonComfort N (1993) Brewers Politics, a phrase and fable dictionary, Cassell, LondonHeld D, (1996) Models of Democracy 2nd edition, Polity Press, OxfordKukathas, (2001) Can a Liberal Society Tolerate Illiberal elements? Policy 17, No. 2Kukathas (2003) the Liberal Archipelago A theory of Diversity and Freedom, Oxford University Press, OxfordKymlicka W, (1995) Multicultural Citizenship, Oxford U niversity Press