Sunday, March 31, 2019
Oscar Wilde, The printing Of Dorian white-haired center I give my personal opinion of the envisage of Dorian Grey and how the author Oscar Wilde depicted himself in the sweet. This essay reads the novel from sev sequencel aspects include viewer and cheat point of view of Wilde, the connection between the novel and the social background and how the author lives his own intent in the novel. rouge words aestheticism, capital of Seychelles era, corruption, responsibilityOscar Wilde was born in 1854, when the Queen Victoria reigned and Victoria literature style was flowering. Wildes pargonnts were successful Dublin intellectuals and when he was girlish he was tutored at home, where he became fluent in French and German. He was occultly interested in the rise school of thought of aestheticism when he was at Oxford led by his tutors, Walter Pater and John Ruskin, who had a great influence on his writings later in his carriage.The prosperity in the Victoria era began to decline in the late 19th century. The hegemony of Great Britain was ch entirelyenged by the rising Germany and domestic dispute with Ireland. Under the superficial vanity of the British confederacy lies the corruption of the aristocracy. They led a dissolute life and their Vitoria values and beliefs began to vanish. humoring and hedonism took the place of a decent and respectable life style they utilise to live. Oscar Wilde was born to be a spokesman of this era in the field of literature. The picture of Dorian Gray is one and the solitary(prenominal) novel of his and, in my opinion, is a representative oeuvre of two his life and the declining era.The apologue starts on a beautiful day with Lord Henry Wotton observing the artist sweet basil Hallward painting the portrait of a handsome childly man earnd Dorian Gray. Dorian arrives later and meets Wotton. After talked with the libertine lord, Dorian begins to believe that lulu is the only thing that deserves to pursue in all his life. Distraught that his beauty will fade, he wishes that the beautiful and ever-lasting portrait can grow grey-headed instead of him, which finally comes true in some government agency. Later in his life, the portrait keep records of whatever he does and the portrait gets older and uglier erst he does something criminal or corrupt. In the end, he hypothesizes the only way to absolve him is to destroy the painting with a knife, which ends his horrible life instead. What is teetotal is that his painting becomes what it used to be hardly Dorian himself dies with an aged and diminish face.Acknowledged as the spokesman of the philosophy of aestheticism, Wildes doctrine was Art for arts sake. For Wilde, the economic consumption of art would guide life if beauty alone were its object. The picture of Dorian Gray reveals the belief that beauty on the surface can only exist in tragedies. As Henry said in the study -in the presence of off behind every beautiful thing in that respect i s some tragic things are (The picture of Dorian Gray Oscar Wilde 1891), calamity if the nature of beauty. Wilde, a pursuer of extreme art and beauty, combined the face of both Dorians and Basils. He once said that Basil Hallward is what I think I am Lord Henry is what the world thinks me Dorian gray is what I would analogous to be-in other ages perhaps. These three main characters in the tale are the spirit of the story.Dorian Gray is a handsome young man who accepts Lord Henrys idea of hedonism. He indulges himself in all kinds of pleasure, honorable and immoral. Like Oscar Wilde, Dorian thinks that beauty is the only object of life and that is why he would like to trade his conscience for life-long youth and beauty. Dorian is truly an extremist of aestheticism, a person that Wilde admires. Wilde highlights Dorians pleasure of vitality a soprano life and being an example of duplicity. Although Dorian is extremely indulgent, he replies go through care, Basil. You go too far when Basil accuses him of making Lord Henrys sisters name a by-word. This indicates that Dorian still cares what he looks like in peoples eyeball and his image in the Victorian society. 24 hours after committing a murder, he happily attends a party and feels keenly the terrible pleasure of a double life. Dorian enjoys this double life as an integration of bully and brutal. I think this kind of life is what Wilde dreams of. Actually Wilde is just like Dorian. His life is a paradox because he is both obedient and evil, both sophisticated and simple, both honest and hypocritical. Different from other writers, he leads a much more real life than others. Being accused of bugger (gay person) by his lovers father, he has lots of scandals and was imprisoned for two year. He abandons his married woman and children for his male lover again after he is released. But he does non get what he pursues at last. Different from other writers, he belongs to the upper-class instead of the impove rished known for his biting wit, flamboyant window-dress and glittering conversations. Wilde was one of the best known personalities of his day (On Characters in the Picture of Dorian GrayAn Interpretation of Oscar Wilde 2008). He converts to Roman Catholicism on his deathbed. all those experience are the reflectivitys of his motto I want to live alternatively than survive. He himself is a living character in his own life story. Wilde gives what he wants and what he respects to this person-Dorian Gray.Another character in this story named Basil Hollward is also a reflection of Wilde himself. Wilde says that Basil Hollward is what he thinks he is. I think that is because Basil Hollward is a complete artist. Attracted by Dorians gorgeous face, he paints the portrait of Dorian which proves to be his finest work. Art is the only hunting of basil and he does not want to believe that Dorian is evil although he was murdered by him at last. He still thinks that he is beautiful yet inco mplete. What he commits is just a flaw in an apparently undefiled thing. In my opinion, he knows what happened as the painting changes but he just does not want to believe. Once Basil acknowledges all the evil sides of Dorian, his dream of art was destroyed. Dorian is a work of art to Basil as well as a lover deep in his heart. Whod like to admit his or her lover is evil and adulterate? Wilde once said my life as an artist depends on him. This is because basil, as an artist, possesses all the doctrines of what Wilde think an artist should have. He is a perfect reflection of Wildes witticism all that I desire to point out is the common principle that life obeys art far more than art imitate life.Disappointed to the society, Wilde gives all the social characteristics to this Lord. He tricks Dorian to become a half-human half-evil spirit with his corrupted lifestyle. What he does in the story is to lead Dorian to be destroyed in his ideology. As he says that the purpose of life is self development and the full realization of the nature of their requirements. His position in the story is best described by basil, as never says anything good but never does anything bad.(Aestheticism in the picture of Dorian grey, 2006)Besides the composition of aestheticism, this masterpiece also reveals the social situation and peoples sense of irresponsible at that time. When Dorian visit to the opium dens of London, according to what Lord Henry asserts crime belongs simply to the lower ordersI should fancy that crime was to them what art is to us. In Henrys eyes, distinct social status has different world view and a impair value must belong to the lower class. What ironic is that Dorian conflates criminal and aesthete.Back in the last stage of the Victoria era, people were wacky about indulgence and corruption but did not want to be responsible for their behavior. This theme is also reflected in the picture of Dorian Grey. In my opinion, Dorian uses his portrait to quas h his responsibility. He also justifies his actions according to the philosophy of the new hedonism. At the end of the novel, he chooses to destroy the painting as a way to confess. All these behavior depicts a spirit which aims to avoid all the commitments and condemnation.Professor John Sutherland once said in his yack away that this writing would have secured Wilde only a minor place in literature, but his status is elevated by his notoriety. I am not totally on board with this statement. Wilde may not be a very successful novelist but he is a successful living human being pursuing what he really wants for all his life. He thinks that it was the artists duty to rebel against precisely sacred orthodoxies. He and his novel are of total success in this sense as a perfect reflection of art and beauty.
Saturday, March 30, 2019
Skills Requi ruby-red in PhlebotomyObjectivesTo acquire the knowledge and skills to perform phlebotomy and finger prick.To teach the assemble of snuff it and its signifi quarterce.To learn various devices and preparation techniques before phlebotomy. entrancePhlebotomy is referred to the cutting of a venous derivation vessel. It is a procedure often involving invasion that invades the body through cutting or puncture norm anyy carried forbidden by professionals called phlebotomists. Among the major roles involving a phlebotomist is to obtain stemma specimens for diagnostic riddleing. This can be do either by dermal puncture which is done by puncturing the skin or venepuncture which is done by puncturing the veins. former(a) than that, a phlebotomist is too responsible in redrawing pedigree from donors during blood transfusion of from both patients having polycythemia which is known for overproduction of blood cells. Phlebotomist atomic number 18 also responsible for la y in and properly packaging urine specimens, accepting incoming specimens (blood and body fluids, etc.), and routing specimens to the proper departments to be tested and analysed. In order for a phlebotomist to withdraw blood from a patient, he should make sure that the tubes argon labelled and all the materials ar prepared before carrying out the procedure. The best situates for venipunture are unremarkably the superficial veins of the upper limbs. The superficial vein most putting greenly apply for venipuncture is the median Cubital Vein which lies over the cubital fossa and serves as an anastomosis between the basilica veins and the cephalic veins. The next most common vein is the cephalic vein where it can be followed proximally where it empties into the axillary vein. The basilic vein is also a location for venipunture as it divides to join the brachial vein. The customary sites for capillary puncture or finer prick in adults and children are the fingertip. In adults, th e ring finger is often selected beca drug abuse it usually is not calloused. hairlike blood can be obtained from the great toe in infants and babies. In new-borns, the lateral or side portion of the end of the heel pas is used.The BD banterAmong the inappropriate sites for venipuncture are the site affected by a mastectomy. This is because mastectomy causes lymphostasis which mean stoppage of lymph flow where the bodys ability to fight infection is compromised if lymph nodes are removed therefore patients are more prone to infections. Edematous sites, an abnormal appeal of fluid on the intracellular space of the tissue must also be avoided as it can cause difficulty in palpating the veins delinquent to the excess fluid. The specimen can also be contaminated with the fluid. Venipuncture performed at sites of scars and burns are also inappropriate as it causes unusual unhinge for the patients. This is caused by the veins that are very difficult to palpate and also open to infe ctions as the protective barrier (epidermal layer) has been disrupted. Other than that, patients who have IV rivulet in their arm should not be used for venepuncture as it whitethorn be a contaminant to the blood collected. Lastly, dermal punctures must never be performed on the fingers of a new-born or very young infant. This is because there is very little distance between the skin and the bone. Therefore, the bone could be easily pierced during the puncture, ca employ injury to the bone, infection, or gangrene.The order of draw is as follows,Blood CulturesCoagulation tube-shaped structure (light blue top)Plain red AND/OR Serum Separator Tube (red gel/SST)Heparin Tube (green top)Plain Sodium HeparinPlain lithium HeparinLithium Heparin GelEDTA Tube (purple and pink top)Fluoride/ Oxalate Tube (grey top)Miscellaneous tubes (these are drawn in no specific order)Heavy metal fateful blue top (EDTA and plain red)b. ACD yellow topThe purpose of the order of draw is to avoid possible test result error callable to cross contamination from tube additives. Potassium results can be wrongly elevated as EDTA is rich in thou. Therefore test for potassium must be collected before tubes containing EDTA. Other than that, the microscopic appearing of the red blood cells on a WBC differential test will be distorted due to the additives in the Fluoride/ Oxalate tube as oxalate interferes the red blood cell membrane and fluoride alter its morphology. Moreover, coagulation tests such as Activated partial thromboplastic time (aPTT) and prothrombin (PT) can be affected with the presence of clot activators by shortened test results. bacterium from non-sterile tube stoppers/shields can contaminate blood collected into bottles/tubes used for blood cultures, resulting in the growth of bacteria erroneously leading a doc to think his/her patient has a blood infection.A hematoma is a collection of blood beneath the skin. Hematomas are the most common unfavorable reaction to veni puncture. Precautions that can be taken to prevent hematoma in phlebotomy are by puncturing only the uppermost wall of the vein. Other than that, the phlebotomist can also remove the tourniquet before removing the needle. The needle should full penetrate the upper-most wall of the vein as partial penetration may allow blood to leak into the tissue surrounding the vein. Lastly, adequate air pressure should be applied to stop the bleeding once the phlebotomy is complete.Haemolysed blood specimens are not be acceptable for testing. Hemolysis occurs when the red cells burst and haemoglobin and other intracellular components spill into the serum. Hemolyzed serum or plasma is pink or red, rather than the normal clear straw or pale yellow colour. Steps that can prevent haemolysis are by mixing tubes gently or about 5 10 times after collection. The tubes should not be shaken too cleverly and drawing blood should be performed on hematoma individuals. Other than that, when using a needle or syringe, avoid drawing back the loon to forcefully. Moreover, if a blood transfer device is used to fill vacutainer tubes, ever allow the vacuum to pull the blood into the tubes. Do not use he plunger or syringe to force the blood into the tubes quickly.ReferencesAkron Childrens Hospital, 2015, research laboratory Test Procedure Performing A Venipuncture. Online. ready(prenominal) at https//www.akronchildrens.org/cms/lab_procedures/9179c8cb8f877ee3/ Accessed 29/01/2015.Johnson. L, 2013, National Center for Competency Testing Phlebotomy order of draw, Online. Available at https//www.ncctinc.com/documents/Phlebotomy%20Order%20of%20Draw.pdf Accessed 29/01/2015.MediaLab incorporated, 2015, Hematoma, Online. Available at https//www.medialabinc.net/spg549505/hematoma.aspx, Accessed 29/01/2015.Turgeon., M,. L, 2005, clinical Hematology Theory and Procedures, Volume 936, Online, Available at https//books.google.com.my/books?id=cHAjsUgegpQCpg=PA26lpg=PA26dq=edematous+site+veni puncturesource=blots=qxLCqzHsO2sig=OaKkj33lflGKFvorZweYFnb4RHUhl=ensa=Xei=n1bHVI-VM4yD8gW29IKoBgved=0CDIQ6AEwAwv=onepageq=edematous%20site%20venipuncturef=false , Accessed 29/01/2015
What Are The Mechanisms Of Oz superstar Depletion environsal Sciences EssayThe mechanism of orbicular warming underside be depict by the Greenhouse tack together by which, solar radiation enters through the Earths atmosphere and is retained, resulting in change magnitude temperatures. Solar radiation entering the Earths atmosphere is partly indifferent by the Earths surface and partially re-radiated back into space. However, having lost skill to the Earths surface, the infr ard radiation is of an add-ond wavelength and is consequently absent by certain assailses ( babys room petrolses) in the Earths atmosphere. This results in the radiation being re rolld within the Earths atmosphere, manoeuvreing to an add-on average temperature of the Earths ripe surface duck soup and oceans.Ozone depletion is a result of the catalysed chemical reactions between ozone and nuclear centilitre or bromine. Chlorofluoro snows (CFC) and bromofluorocarbons induce the greatest ozone depl eting electromotive force as they form atomic chlorine and bromine upon photodissociation.Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide give nonice be considered to conduct the greatest global warming potential callable to their abundance. From these boastses, nitrous oxide is 310 measure more than effective in absorbing radiation than carbon dioxide, and methane is 21 times more effective than carbon dioxide.What is the difference between wintertime and summer smog? develop the mechanism by which they are generated. spend and summer smog nooky be differentiated by their constituents and frankincense their environmental impacts. Winter smog is do up of sulphur dioxide, partially oxidised organics and particulate matter (PM), the concentrations of which are typically increased in winter months all over collect to increased heating from sulphur rich dodo discharges such as coal and oil. It is overly referred to as reducing smog. These pollutants empennage affect the re spiratory system and form secondary pollutants. Sulphur dioxide layabout form point fall from oxidation catalysed by PM or free radicals of group O and north.Summer, or photochemical smog, slants to occur as a result of increased nitrogen oxides or hydrocarbon concentrations in the atmosphere due to exhausts from internal combustion engines. Nitrogen oxides weed be broken level by sunlight to form radicals ca development low level ozone constitution, nitrous loony toons, peroxides, aldehydes and ketones.Both types of smog are more probable to form in cities and as a result of lack of wind. The lack of air battlefront sack result in a temperature inversion which causes a work of still warm air to c over a layer of calm air, housing any pollutants below the warm layer near terms level.What is the difference between stratospheric and tropospheric ozone? Explain the role of dark in the genesis of tropospheric ozone.The ozone layer typically occurs in the stratosph ere and is raw(a)ly formed and decomposed from the reactions between oxygen and oxygen free radicals which are formed from the annihilation of oxygen by ultraviolet light. The stratosphere is typically located from around 20 to 50 km in a exalteder place the Earths surface. The occurrence of ozone at this level helps absorb harmful ultraviolet light.Tropospheric ozone refers to ozone occurring in the troposphere (up to 12 km above the Earths surface). Ozone at this level can be poisonous and also acts as a greenhouse burn out with a heat trapping effectiveness of 2000 times greater than carbon dioxide.The division of nitrogen dioxide by ultraviolet light can lead to the organization of oxygen free radicals.NO2 = NO + O*O* + O2 = O3Describe the mechanisms for dit rain and eutrophication, respectively. What are the effects of these two environmental impacts?Acid rain is primarily formed from SOx and dark. Sulphur oxides are oxidised in the comportment of ultraviolet light t o form sulphur trioxide bodge, through reacting with piddle, this can therefore form stinging rain in the form of sulphurous window pane and/or sulphuric harsh. Nitrogen oxides are oxidised to nitrogen dioxide which whitethorn then lead to the reaction between peeing and nitrogen dioxide allowing for the organization of nitrous and nitrous stinging. Acid rain can effect vegetation, lakes and rivers, buildings and pitying nearlyness.Eutrophication is the puzzle out that occurs due to excessive growth of habitats to an extent where the growth becomes insalubrious to the environment. Use of artificial fertilisers from farming leads to increased levels of nitrates and phosphates accumulating in lakes and rivers. The nitrates and phosphates are nutrients that increase the growth of botanys and algae. When these plants and algae die they can decompose aerobically to form carbon dioxide and water. With excessive decomposition, oxygen will be depleted and anaerobic decompos ition will occur, leading to formation of hydrides such as ammonium hydroxide and heat content sulphide. More species will die due to poisoning caused by the hydrides and whitethorn eventually lead to the death of the entire habitat.Which of the above environmental impacts do nitrogen oxides contribute to? Explain how.Nitrogen oxides contribute to the formation of point rain either in the form of nitric or nitrous acid.Upon absorbing ultraviolet light nitrogen dioxide breaks d bear to form nitrogen oxide and oxygen radicals. These radicals can combine with water to form hydroxyl radicals which whitethorn then react with nitrogen oxide to form nitric acid.Air contaminant streak and chairWhat excerptions exist for the prevention and sporting-up of acid gas sparks?Emissions of nitrogen oxides can potentially lead to the formation of acid rain, with several pickings gettable for its prevention and clean-up. These primarily include selective catalytic reduction (SCR), non-sel ective catalytic reduction (NSCR), and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR).The power exertion uses SCR for post-combustion nighttime clean up and/or low nighttime burners and SNCR for prevention of dark formation in the combustion stop. SCR involves reacting ammonia water water or urea with NOx over vanadium oxide catalysts in a temperature range of 300 to 400 C and can remove up to 95 % of NOx. SNCR involves injecting ammonia/urea in the furnace at temperatures of 900 to 1100 C, with a removal ability of only around 30 %.Non-selective catalytic reduction removes NOx in a method analgous to the 3-way catalytic converter used in the automotive industry. This is typically utilize in the chemical industries.Sulphur oxides can also lead to acid rain. Flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plant involves bush the gasses to remove sulphur oxides. For example, limestone scrubbing is one method of FGD, which converts sulphur oxides into calcium sulphate dihydrate (gypsum).Which st ages in the keep cycle of an installation moldinessiness be considered within the IPPC guiding? totally stages of the life cycle should be considered i.e. from cradle to grave. In tack to bring home the bacon an integrated approach, no stage can be left out, and a full assessment of the environmental, social and economic impacts should be carried out for the novel materials, process, storage and transportation stages involved.Which industrial sphere of influences are regulated by the IPPC leading? wherefore do you think these sectors run through been included under the IPPC Directive?The industries covered by the IPPC directive includeEnergy toilRefineriesProduction treat of MetalsProduction of Cement LimeActivities involving As scooposGlass, Glass Fibre and opposite(a)wise Mineral Fibre fictionalizationCeramic ProductionOrganic inorganic Chemical ProductionFertiliser Biocide ManufacturePharmaceutical ManufactureExplosives ManufactureStorage of Bulk ChemicalsIncin erationLandfillPaper ManufactureTar Bitumen ProcessesCoating, Printing and cloth ActivitiesDye, Ink and Coating Material ManufactureTimber ActivitiesRubber ActivitiesProcessing of Food andIntensive Farming.These sectors pretend been included under the Directive due to the requirement of directling and limiting the environmental impact these industries can have during the manufacturing process of their relevant products.Case study Identifying squash racket for the prevention and instruction of NOx emissionsNitric acid inventWhat influences the take over of nitric acid? why is it important to maximise its yield?The yield of nitric acid is effected byThe efficiency of the catalytic oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen monoxideThe efficiency of the oxidation of nitrogen monoxide to nitrogen dioxideThe intentness of nitrogen dioxide in water to produce nitric acidMaximising its yield allows for an good production thus generating more nitric acid at the very(prenominal) operating make up to achieve larger profits. Maximising yield means minimising unreacted nitrogen oxide which is consequently released to atmosphere.Why are the reaction (6) and the reverse of reaction (4) unsuitable in this process?The reverse of reaction 4 results in a unhorse NO2 yield as the reaction will tend towards the NO and O2 through a shift in counterbalance to the reactants. As the ingress of NO2 is limited by NO2 concentration, it is desirable to ensure the forward reaction in reaction 4 occurs in order to maximise HNO3 yield. In addition to this, the occurrence of a reverse reaction (4) in which NO is formed allows for the possibility of nitrous acid formation (reaction 6). Again this is undesirable as NO2 is consumed in producing an unwanted product, consequently leading to a take down NO2 concentration and lower HNO3 yields.In addition to NOx and N2O emissions, what other releases to air, water and land can be expected from nitric acid fabrication? What environmental impacts can these releases cause?Carbon dioxide emissions from burning fogy terminates for capacity requirements and transportation should be accounted for, as well as ammonia, nitric acid, nitrous acid leakages. pollution prevention and control of NOx emissionsPollution prevention Process design and operationThe efficiency of NO2 submergence to produce HNO3 can be increased further by increasing pressure. Discuss the avails and disadvantages of pressurised systems in terms of their technical complexity, environmental impacts (including reverberate) and economic be.As stated, the principal(prenominal)(prenominal) advantage of a pressurised system is the im auditiond submersion of NO2 to produce HNO3, this results in slight NO2 being released to the atmosphere. However, pressurised systems require a more complex design as a result of the serious safety considerations associated with them. Failure of pressurised systems can lead to death or injury of workers on-site as well as the release of NO2 to atmosphere.Pressurised systems would require increased crush and pumping duties, contributing to increased noise pollution, operating costs and maintenance costs. The absorption newspaper column may non have been designed for higher pressures, i.e. materials of construction, column thickness, and column closures may non be suitable, and thus changes would have to be made, resulting in increased groovy costs. These costs must be compared with the amend nitric acid yield in order to fully asses this election.Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of supplying pure oxygen instead of air for oxidation of NO in the HNO3 absorption predominate. reference book the following issuesWhat are the advantages of using pure oxygen instead of air in terms of oxidation efficiency, gas flowrates, column volume etc?victimization pure oxygen rather than air (21% oxygen, 79% nitrogen), allows for the volumetric gas flowrate of this stream to be cut by 79% due to th e voidance of nitrogen. This results in an improved oxidation efficiency, allowing more NO2 to be formed by reducing the amount of NO. The reduced gas flowrate results in a reduced column volume, assume a constant gas hourly space velocity.Unlike air, oxygen does not come for free it has to be produced by separating nitrogen from air (you may remember this from the last old age coursework on Waste Water Treatment within the module mental institution to Sustainable Development). This is usually done in a large get over cryogenic process ( withdrawal by cooling). What are the implications of this in the context of IPPC (i.e. winning into account all life cycle stages associated with this process option)?The cryogenic separation of oxygen from air is a highly energy intensive process. The main stages of the process include compression, cooling, and distillation. From a life-cycle perspective, the raw material (air) is free however, it is the impact stage which incurs the majori ty of environmental impact. Energy is infallible in the compression and distillation stages of the process, thus, assuming energy is obtained from fogey supply sources, greenhouse gas emissions become a concern. Further to this, the requirement of refrigeration may have environmental impacts depending on the refrigerant used. Transportation of the oxygen to the nitric acid plant may have potential impacts however, in par to the processing stage, any environmental impacts are likely to be relatively small. accordingly the production of oxygen does have an environmental impact to an extent however, the IPPC does not apply to this industry, so due to the lack of IPPC regulation in the sector inefficiencies or environmental concerns may indirectly effect the nitric acid manufacturing process. The blusher concern of using pure oxygen is the additional cost.Pollution prevention Extended absorptionExplain the idea behind elongated absorption. What is the link between the number of off wholes (NTU) in the HNO3 absorption tower and the NOx emissions?Extended absorption (EA) allows for any unreacted nitrogen dioxide to be absorbed in a second tower, thus increasing nitric acid production and reducing NOx emissions. Oxygen can also be injected to oxidise any nitrogen monoxide so that it can be absorbed in the new absorption column. An increase in NTU in the HNO3 absorption tower results in lower NOx emissions.How would you compute the required top side of the absorption column to increase the HNO3 production yield and reduce the emissions of NOx from the manufacture of nitric acid? What information and data would you need to do that? (See the Appendix.)In order to calculate the required height of the absorption column, the NTU must be calculated. This requires the gas mole fraction at the top of the column (yT) and at the bottom (yB). The gradient of the operating line, R is also required, this is obtained from the equilibrium of the operating line, the molar g as flowrate, and the molar liquid flowrate per unit tower sphere.This value is then multiplied by the height of a transfer unit which is given(p) byWhere G is the molar gas flowrate per unit tower area, ky is the overall mass transfer coefficient, and a is the interfacial area per unit packed volume.Height = HTU x NTUPollution control preoccupancy in sodium hydroxideIPPC requires consideration of wider impacts of an activity, which means consideration of a number of life cycle stages of a process. In the mooring of NOx scrubbing by sodium hydroxide, what parts of the life cycle must be included for flail assessment? Analysing this system, explain why absorption of NOx in NaOH is unalikely to represent cream off.All stages of the life cycle must be considered for a through and exhaustive analysis of BAT assessment. The final stage of the life-cycle for the sodium hydroxide scrubbing option is a key concern. The disposal of the sodium nitrite-nitrate effluent is a key concern. If no suitable disposal or recycle method can be identified for the effluent, then along with the increased costs incurred from NaOH feedstock and increased pumping, this option does not represent BAT.Pollution control Non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR)Non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) is quite efficient in reducing the emissions of NOx from the manufacture of nitric acid. However, it also generates additional environmental impacts. Identify these impacts for hydrogen and natural gas as reducing agents, respectively, and explain the origin of these impacts.The requirement of a reducing agent such as hydrogen and natural gas has real environmental implications. Hydrogen is likely to have been produced from steam reforming of fossil kindles, and natural gas is a fossil fuel, therefore, consideration should be given to the process of extracting the fossil fuel, transporting it and processing it. In the case of hydrogen, the processing stage is likely to be a key concern as it is an energy intensive process which results in further emissions and additional environmental impacts. For example, steam reforming of methane to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide is an endothermic reaction requiring heat generated lots from burning fossil fuels. However, using methane as a reducing agent leads to the formation of CO2 in the process.Calculate the amount of carbon dioxide in t/yr generated in the NSCR process which removes 1.5 t NO2/day from the nitric acid tail gas using natural gas. Calculate the potential for global warming from these CO2 emissions. comparing that with the global warming avoided by the removal of the analogous amount of N2O per day from the same tail gas. What do you conclude?2CH4 + O2 + 2NO2 +2N2O = 2CO2 + 4H2O + 3N2Mass of NO2 = 1500 kg/dayMolecular Weight of NO2 = 46.01 kg/molMoles of NO2 = 32.60 kmol/dayMoles of CO2 = (2/2) * Moles of NO2 = 32.60 kmol/dayMolecular Weight of CO2 = 44.01 kg/kmolMass of CO2 = 1.4 t CO2/daypresumptuou s that the plant is operational for 365 days per year, the annual amount of carbon dioxide generated by the NSCR process can be estimated as 524 liothyronines per year.N2O has a heat trapping effectiveness of 150 times that of CO2 thus the saving made by converting N2O to CO2 is substantial with regards to global warming potential. The N2O produced would be equivalent to 78,551 tonnes of CO2 per year.Use the example in the previous question to calculate the equivalent acidification impact that would be avoided by the removal of NOx with the NSCR process. Compare this avoided impact with global warming generated through the use of natural gas to remove the NOx. What do you conclude? How should we approach situations like these, where reducing one environmental impact causes another?The classification factor for NOx is estimated as 0.7 kg/kg. Therefore acidification savings can be estimated as 1050 kg/day which is equivalent to 383 tonnes per year. In comparison to the 524 tonnes of CO2 produced per year, it can be noted that the reduction of the acidification impact does not outweigh the CO2 produced in the process.Pollution control Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)What are the main environmental and safety concerns associated with the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process?SCR typically uses ammonia or urea to catalytically convert nitrogen oxides to molecular(a) nitrogen and water however, the production of these reactants have key environmental considerations. ammonia production typically involves steam reforming of a hydrocarbon feedstock such as natural gas or naphtha. Thus, fossil fuel depletion and the issues surrounding fossil fuel extraction, transportation and processing are all key sustainability concerns. However, ammonia produced from naphtha would be more of a concern than ammonia produced from natural gas due to the additional refining process from which it is produced. Ammonia production also involves the emission of carbon dioxide, a g reenhouse gas.Gas preheating also has an impact on energy requirements and thus greenhouse gas emissions.On-site ammonia or urea storage would be required any leakages of ammonia could prove fatal as it is toxic upon inhalation.Catalyst disposal may also have various environmental impacts depending on the toxicity of the used catalyst.Why is it important to minimise ammonia sack from the SCR process for NOx control?The occurrence of ammonia slip results in inefficient use of feedstock. cost can be notably reduced by ensuring minimum ammonia slip throughout operation. Ammonia may also react with other compounds to form unwanted products. For example, ammonium bisulphate formation in power industry often results in damage to air heaters. Therefore, this should be further investigated for the exercise of nitric acid production to ensure any unwanted compounds are not formed. Further to this, as ammonia is toxic, any ammonia slip would result in release to atmosphere therefore potent ial health concerns exist.Balancing environmental and economic costsWhat would be your answer to the above question on the comparison between SCR and NSCR?From table 2, it is evident that SCR can provide an improved NOx removal (exit level of 100 ppm) in comparison to NSCR (205 PPM) however, SCRs failure to remove N2O may be a key concern when compared to NSCR which does remove the compound. However, unlike NSCR, SCR does not result in evidential CO2 emissions. The economics of both options demonstrate that when combined with EA, NSCR is prodigiously more expensive than SCR and only provides an improvement of 0.3 %. Therefore SCR would be chosen over NSCR.Analyse the data shown in Tables 3 and 4 and make your own choice of BAT for NOx prevention and control. Explain and justify your choice.The significant costs of NSCR in comparison to SCR would result in increased nitric acid footings, to the extent where it would not be profitable to manufacture. The small gains in removal eff iciency made using NSCR over SCR with EA do not justify the large difference in price therefore, the choice of BAT is between EA and EA with SCR. With EA adding a cost 230 per tonne of acid, and EA+SCR adding a cost of 880 per tonne of acid, from an economic perspective it would be closely suitable to chose EA due to its high NOx removal of 94.8 %. However, the improved removal efficiency of SCR (98.5%) does allow for an program line to be made for its choice as BAT. With regards to cost, EA+SCR does provide increased costs and lower profits however, its ability to sufficiently meet IPPC targets cannot be overlooked, thus for this reason, it should be chosen as BAT.The social implications of the pollution prevention and control techniques have not been considered above. Can you identify them for each option? Do the social considerations change your choice of BAT?Both EA and EA+SCR share ballpark social implications such as the construction of new plant absorption column for EA, and a reactor for SCR. This involves construction vehicles travelling through the area, resulting in increased noise pollution. Other social impacts of EA are minimal as an increased compression requirement may result in around increased noise pollution. If energy is generated on-site for the compressors, then higher greenhouse gas emissions may be a concern. With regards to SCR, ammonia slip is a key concern, as the gas is toxic when inhaled. Further to this, the energy required for gas pre-heating also contributes to increased greenhouse gas emissions. Overall the EA option proves more suitable in terms of reducing social impacts and so this would be the option for BAT.Choosing BATWhy do you think the high society has chosen to consider these two options and not any other described above?Choosing to modify the absorption column in order to pursue at higher pressures would be a lot cheaper than employing the extend absorption option which would require the construction of an ad ditional column, thus resulting in increased capital and operational costs. In addition to this, this option would be chosen over the NaOH absorption process, again due to the increased capital costs resulting from an additional absorption tower and the increased operational costs incurred from a NaOH feed. Increasing operating pressure does not have any significant on-site environmental releases/impacts other than an increased compression duty. SCR may have been chosen due to its ease to be retrofitted and its high removal efficiency. In comparison to other options, SCR provides the trounce performance for NOx removal.Choosing BAT Environmental considerationsConsider the LCA results shown in Figure 5 and answer the following questionsWhy do you think the SCR option has higher fossil fuel and ozone depletion than the beggarly of operations case?The requirement of natural gas for the production of ammonia is likely to be the primary cause of increased fossil fuel depletion for SCR . NOx formed during ammonia production may also be a cause of the increased ozone depletion associated with SCR. In addition to this, ammonia slip may result in ammonia being released to atmosphere which then reacts with ammonia to produce ammonium nitrate.The fact that SCR is dampen for some impacts but worsened for the others when compared with the base case makes it more difficult to chose BAT. If you as a plant operator had to choose between these two options, which one would you choose? disengage your choice by discussing the significance of global impacts (such as ozone depletion and fossil fuel depletion) and regional and local impacts (such as acidification and photochemical smog).In comparison to the base case, SCR only has a slightly higher fossil fuel and ozone depletion whereas other impacts such as acidification and human toxicity are significantly reduced through using SCR. As efficiencies are made in the ammonia production process, SCR could potentially have a reduc ed impact on fossil fuel depletion. In addition to this, the production of ammonia using energy from renewable sources is also an option to reduce fossil fuel depletion, as well as the ability to generate hydrogen from the electrolysis of water using renewable energy.Based purely on environmental considerations, which process out of the three options (base case, HP and SCR) would you choose as BAT? Explain why.Based only on the environmental considerations, HP demonstrates BAT. In comparison to the base case and SCR, HP has the least environmental impact for fossil fuel depletion, global warming, ozone depletion, acidification, photochemical smog, and human toxicity.Compare now the SCR and HP options in terms of the level of NOx emissions that they can achieve. Which process would you as an operator choose? Why?The HP modification has a removal efficiency of 84%, removing 1202 ppm of NOx however, SCR has a greater removal efficiency of 93%, removing 1332 ppm of NOx. As the base case plant produces 1432 ppm of NOx per hour, the effect concentrations for the HP and SCR modifications are 230 ppm and 100 ppm, respectively. SCRs effectiveness in removing NOx is notably greater than that of the HP option therefore, from an operational point of view, SCR would be chosen. have both the environmental impacts and the levels of NOx emission that each option can achieve and make an overall choice of BAT. Justify your choice by taking into account the IPPC principles.Both options satisfy the IPPC principles to a certain extent. However, HP has greater residence than SCR with the IPPC principles. HP and SCR both provide protection for the environment as a whole by reducing NOx emissions from the nitric acid plant. Although, SCR has improved removal efficiency over HP, the impact of ammonia production fails to demonstrate SCR as the BAT in comparison to HP in this case. HP provides a make better case for pollution prevention, by reducing NOx formation throughout the proce ss whereas SCR demonstrates a case for pollution control. As prevention is favored to control, HP again provides the better option. In providing a balance between the environment, economics and social impacts, HP provides the better option. Significant reductions in global warming potential, acidification and human toxicity are made through employing HP over SCR, with notable gains in reducing fossil fuel depletion, ozone depletion and photochemical smog. Although SCR demonstrates an improved NOx removal efficiency, overall, the environmental impact as a whole can be reduced by employing HP modifications. Further to this, the income generated by HP modifications, can contribute to further plant modifications leading to improved process efficiencies. Therefore, considering its wider compliance with IPPC principles HP would be chosen as BAT.Choosing BAT Socio-economic considerationsChoose your preferred NOx prevention or control option considering the internal (MAC) and outside(a) c osts (MDC) shown Tables 6 and 7. Justify your choice.With regards to the bare(a) abatement costs (MAC) for NOx emissions, the HP option clearly proves to be the more attractive option due to the savings made ( MAC = -92 per ppm). The surplus energy generated and increase in acid produced leads to improved revenue which consequently reduces the operating cost of the plant. However, SCR increases operating cost by 225 per ppm of NOx removed. In order to asses if SCRs improved removal efficiency can justify such a cost, the marginal damage cost of both options was compared. The results indicate that MDC due to NOx emissions was lower for SCR ( 35,770 per year) than for HP ( 82,320 per year). However, the MDC fails to consider environmental impacts other than NOx emissions. If costs were considered for the impacts of ammonia production, it is likely that the MDC for SCR would be much higher. Considering this, HP was chosen as the best option.Choosing BAT The whole pictureList all cri teria relevant for choosing BAT in the above case study. On the basis of the results obtained, rank the three options in order of their desirability. You may wish to create a rank table, assigning a number to each technology to indicate the order of preference on a scale from 1-3 (e.g. number 1 indicates the best option and 3 the worst) this ranking should be done for each measuring rod you have listed.NOx removal efficiency/Marginal Damage costSCRHPBase CaseMarginal Abatement CostsHPBase CaseSCRLife-Cycle Environmental ImpactsHPSCRBase Case conformism with IPPC PrinciplesHPSCRBase CaseIdentify BAT for the conditions of this case study, assuming that you are Head of Engineering and Technology Division in a company. Justify your choice.Based on the criteria listed in question 1, HP demonstrates the most suitable option for IPPC compliance, reducing overall environmental impacts as well as providing savings in operating costs. Although SCR has a greater NOx removal efficiency, HP is consistently and in some cases significantly better than SCR in reducing environmental impacts such as fossil fuel depletion, global warming, ozone depletion, acidification, photochemical smog, and human toxicity. In addition to this, choosing HP not only reduces the plants environmental impact, but allows for improved energy generation onsite. Therefore, gains in efficiency can be made, reducing reliance on volatile energy prices. The HP option does not require additional feedstock, unlike SCRs ammonia requirement, and is therefore not as directly exposed to price fluctuations. Thus, the option of HP modification is econo
Friday, March 29, 2019
Business Comparison Of china And USAThis essay critic all toldy analyses the differences and similarities mingled with the unify States of America and the Republic of mainland chinaware. Firstly, this essay identifies the main theories of inter cultural confabulation by applying Hofstedes intercultural exemplar. Secondly, the Chinese and joined States negotiators style will be discussed followed by an explanaition about how to manage negotiation in twain countries. Thirdly, the similarities and differences among China and the United States will be compargond.Negotiating with the Chinese is an strategic root word in international melody and cross-cultural management since China is performing an increasingly active role in doing worry with the western countries negotiating with Chinese is also becoming increasingly all grievous(p) for international product line successes in particular, since after China joined WTO in December 2001. (Zhu et al., 2007 354)The aim of this theatre of operations is to comp atomic number 18 the Chinese and United States American negotiation styles on the normal cultural differences to help to get a better understanding when doing barter in China or the United States. Chaney and Martin (2004) as cited in Zhu et al. (2007 355) specialise cross-cultural negotiation as conversation or discussions of common and counterpoint interests mingled with persons of different cultural backgrounds who work to reach an agreement of unwashed benefit. foreign managers can profit from theatre of operationsing similarities and differences in negotiating demeanours to recognize what on the button is happening during the negotiating process (see Appendix A). However, managers first need to understand their have got negotiation styles, to understand the similarities and differences in intercultural communions (Deresky, 2000).2. Intercultural communication and their main theoriesIn 1959 the phrase intercultural communication was firstly used by the cross-cultural research worker Edward T. Hall as he divides genialisations into two types, broad(prenominal)-context nuance and low-context culture (Aneas and keystonen, 2009 Hall, 1976). Further in 1980 the management researcher Geert Hofstede analysed data from to a greater extent than 100,000 IBM employees and positive his Cultural Dimensions Model. His theory is based on the assumption of four dimensions world trade leader Distance Index (PDI), individualism versus Collectivism (IDV), Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS) and suspicion Avoidance Index (UAI) (Powell, 2006). The fifth dimension Long-Term Orientation versus short Orientation (LTO) was identified by Geert Hofstede and Michael H. Bond in 1988 (Fang, 2003). Finally, Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner developed a model of seven dimensions of culture to help explain intercultural differences. These dimensions are called Universalism versus Particularism, Individualism versus Comm unitarianism, Specific versus Diffuse cultures, Affective versus Neutral cultures, Achievement versus Ascription, Sequential versus concurrent cultures and Internal versus External control (Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 1998).3. Hofstedes intercultural frameworkIn this study the focus is on Hofstedes well-established management theory. gauge 1 displays the intercultural framework of Hofstede. According to Hofstede and his model it is of high significance to consider the high cultural differences between Chinese and American stack to be successful in doing wrinkle across borders.Figure 1 The 5D Model of professor Geert Hofstede stem Adapted from Itim International (n.d.). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions online. Available at URLhttp//www.geerthofstede.com/hofstede_dimensions.php?culture1=18culture2=95compare Accessed 20 January 2010.The Power Distance Index (PDI) stands for the hierarchy of cause within a society and its general acceptance amongst the rustics populate. Chi nas rank is close to 80 which is a very high level compared to United States be with 40. The level of inequality of power and wealth is high but, according to Hofstede, judge by the Chinese society. Thus, that the level of power distance is very high in China, the boss is in the authority and in the position to see over everything. American culture however allows more equal power and respect for every rank in a line of credit, which means for our line of credit that our Chinese employees will probably need to be educated to mention decisions on their own.Regarding Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV) China ranks noniceably low in individualism (20) compared to the United States (91). Consequently, the Chinese culture is strongly collectivist cosmos integrated into a group is crucial and society value devotion as well as strong relationships to both friends and family. The high ranking of the United States means that the society is very individualistic. More precisely th e consolidation into groups does not play such a big role as it does in China.Furthermore, we have to consider that in the index of Masculinity (MAS) China arrives at a rank of 66 which could be interpreted as a preferably masculine society. Chinese people do not show their feelings and try to be calm in every situation. However, between China and the United States (62) is no big difference. This points out that both countries values assertiveness, success, power and competition.The Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) shows that the Chinese are sort of accepting new uncertain situations than avoiding them (rank 30), so they seem to be more tolerant to different opinions however, it is not a country that embraces risky situations, it rather accepts them. People in uncertainty- accepting countries usually do not hold their feelings. The United States ranks higher (46), which means compared to China the American culture is not open to new situations. People here act influenced by the ir emotions and pass water to the woods to be more nervous.Regarding Long-Term Orientation (LTO) it is manifest that Chinese culture is much(prenominal) more committed loyalty to and respect for traditional bloodline strategies than the United States (29). This shows the highest ranking factor worldwide in long-term dodging (118). Chinese people never want to lose face and are short-term oriented. The United States, on contrast, is a long-term planning country in which thrift, perseverance and persistence are valued to peck with. For instance, to deal with economic changes or with adaptation to new situations.4. Chinese NegotiatorsThe Chinese business culture is especially abnormal by the term guanxi and the imprint of pitch face. In a culture, which is focused on relationships, it is important who you know. Chinese people get things done through relationships with family, friends and hittings (Gesteland, 1999). Tung and Worm (2001 521) argues that guanxi refers to relat ionships among people and that they are dyadic, personal relations between people who can make demands on each other (see Figure 2). Further, guanxiwang is the friendly net profit in the Chinese business culture and for them it is fundamental to avoid upsetting anyone in the network because it can lead to destabilizing the web of connections (Chee and West, 2007 57). A key component of guanxi is the notion of saving face. A Chinese persons reputation and social position are based on it. Loosing their face involves reduced social resources, wealth and connections (Ma, 2006).Figure 2 Dyadic relationship in guanxi networkSource Adapted from Tung, R. L. and Worm, V. (2001). Network capitalism the role of human resources in penetrating the China market. International Journal of Human Resource Management. Vol. 12, no(prenominal) 4, pp. 517-534.5. Managing talks with the ChineseTo manage negotiation with the people from different cultures it is important to keep in mind that the indivi duals involved in the negotiation are of different cultures and that there is likely to be some misinterpretations because of their chosen methods of communication ( appeal et al., 2001 351). There are several reasons for the cultural differences. Most of the Chinese business persons are obsessive about equipment casualty expand, because of the fact that China has a traditional agrarian culture. The Communism system and Confucianism, the traditional Chinese demeanor of thinking, affects the negotiation process recognizable through their respect for hierarchical relationships, preservation of face, and group harmony (Chee and West, 2007 pp.97-98). Tung and Worm (2001) as cited in Davison and Ou (2008 290) large-heartedleNegotiation cores depend on the degree of mutual understanding achieved by the transacting partners the quality of the guanxi developed during negotiations may actually be more important than either the price or the product quality eventual price or product qu ality may vary subject to the guanxi.If a person, who is doing business in China, is already in a guanxi network, this business person has to intensify this relationship. If a business person is not involved in a guanxi network, then it is important getting into a network and getting in touch with influential Chinese business persons (Holt and Chang, 2009). Furthermore, when negotiating in China, business persons have to be prepared to discuss all issues at the kindred time and in an apparently disorganised order (Deresky, 2000).6. United States NegotiatorsThe United States business culture is focused on deals with foreign or undiscovered people and especially affected by notions prestige, honor, status, dignity and authority (Yabuuchi, 2004 264). Gesteland (1999 272) suggests thatan American negotiators degree of expressiveness in communication is likely to be strongly influenced by his or her particular ethnic background.For United States business people it is important to be i ssue-related, objective and time-conscious. However, Zhu et al. (2007 357) argue that Americans tend to pay less vigilance to social ranking.7. Managing negotiation in the United StatesThe United States culture is affected by their immigrant society and that is the reason for the cultural diversity. As mentioned above it is all but impossible to predict and esteem specific the negotiating styles of the United States business people. The business people in the United States are time-conscious because of the fact that they dont glom their valuable time for the company. There exists no allegiance to the company (Chua et al., 2009 Gesteland, 1999).8. Similarities and Differences between China and the United StatesAfter analyzing the negotiation style in China and the United States and its reasons, several similarities as well as differences can be pointed out. First of all, it is important to understand the effect negotiating perceptions have on the negotiating outcomes (see Figure 3) .Figure 3 The relationship modelSource Adapted from Ma, Z. (2006). Negotiating into China the impact of individual perception on Chinese negotiation styles. International Journal of Emerging Markets. Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 64-83.Both countries put emphasis on assertiveness, success, power and competition through their closely index of Masculinity in the intercultural framework of Hofstede. Further, look on Chinas and the United States concession behaviour both countries are doing their utmost to achieve their goal and get as much profits as possible (see Appendix A). According to Hofstede, differences between the two countries can be shown in their Long-Term Orientation. The United States (118) are long-term oriented and China (29) short-term oriented. This means that China is more committed to loyalty to and respect for traditional business strategies than the United States. Furthermore, one of the biggest differences is their decision-making behaviour (see Appendix A). United States b usiness people are known as the prompt decision makers in the world whereas China doesnt rush to take a decision. Finally, both countries have a different pursue a different goal in the negotiation process. For the Chinese it is a kind of dialogue, more precisely an exchange of information. In the United States negotiation is associated with an outcome which could be a contract.9. ConclusionSummarising the findings and arguments shows that both countries should have an understanding of the traditions and culture. Woo et al. (2007 351) suggest that when negotiating with the Chinese it is imperative to be conscious of the structural sovietism of those involved in business negotiations. Especially the business people from the United States should be prepared for a long visit when doing business in China. The best way to be successful in China is to skeletal frame guanxi, which is a time-consuming procedure but essential. The Chinese business people have their focus more and more on the content of the deals and the details of the prices. In comparison to the business negotiation in the United States nutty handshakes should be avoided because for some of them it reflects impuissance (Gesteland, 1999).AppendixAppendix A Negotiation Procedures Business ProtocolChinese NegotiatorUnited States Negotiator dress up Codemen type, white shirt,conservative tiewomen conservativesuit or dressvaries somewhataccording to location andtype of businessMeeting and Greeting+ soft handshake/ moderateeye contact bone-crushing handshake/overly post gaze+ firm handshake/ directeye contact some believe softhandshake reflectsweaknessExchanging Business Cards+ exchange of name tease aparts isdone victimisation both hands+ read the business bug+ put the card away in aleather card/ place it onthe table in front of you dont write on someonesname cardmay not initiate theexchange of businesscardsExchanging Giftsbe prepared withappropriate gifts/ presentgift with both hands+ high-ticke t(prenominal) cognac/ itemstypical of your owncountry/ logo giftsis not a gift-givinggift-giving culture many feel uncomfortableif presented with anexpensive giftWinning and Dinning+ maitre d the fine arts ofeating with chopsticks+ toasting your counterpartsmany prefer to go fora separation betweentheir professional andprivate lives Negotiating deportmentChinese NegotiatorUnited States NegotiatorBargaining Rangeoften hand vigorouslyexpect major concessionon price and damageexpect them to test youropening offer forflexibilityConcession behaviorexpect pressure tacticsbe prepared for some breathed bargainingPlays and Counter-Ploysgenerally m claim negativeemotionsmay on intimacy displayanger as a pressure tactica favourite bargainingtactic is time pressureanother is to ask forquotations on a slidingscale by quantityDecision-Making Behavioura long time-consumingprocessdecisions take timefastest decision makersin the worldSource Adapted from Gesteland, R. R. (1999). Cross-cultural business behavior marketing, negotiating and managing across cultures. 2nd ed. Copenhagen Handelshjskolens.
Monolog For Bassoon By Isang Yun medicine EssayIsang Yun was a composer with Korean ethnicity who is strong known in the music world especi onlyy in Europe as he worn-out(a) a major plowsh are of his life in Ger many a(prenominal) and died there too. In his initial years of composing, his paternitys were not fountainhead known in Korea due to the political issues surrounding the eastern United States Berlin Event. Inferring from his biography, it seemed that he wished to see Korea as a unified nation.Between the rate of flow of 1956 to 1995, Isang Yun still music in Germany and other European countries. He besides be vast amount of pieces and his deeds were pen in close to ever soy genre, such as instrumental sonatas, operas, symphonies, and evoketatas. era his lams father been largely performed and studied in Europe, Japan, and even North Korea, S bring outh Korean officials have thoroughly prohibited his music and consider the composer dangerous politically. Isan g Yun very much visited North Korea without permission from the South as North Korea supported scholarships and animate expenses for him. However, after(prenominal) a change of regime in 1982, the national music orchestra of South Korea first introduced his track downs in South Korea. From this time, Yuns music began to be studied by musicians in the South.This paper will discuss in musical theoretical detail one of his working, Monolog for crypticaloonHis well composed work, Monolog for Bassoon was composed in 1983, this was the mid period of Yuns well accomplished compositional career. During this baksheeshedness of his life, he had already achieved mastery over the formal techniques of the European venturesome and had moved much into composing at bottom a more palliate atonal style. The Monolog for bassoon is quintessential of Yuns typical mature style wherein he fusions the pulmonary tuberculosis of free atonality with elements from his ethnic Korean lineage.The Monolog for bassoon, which has so far been put down by at least five prominent bassoonists, is a cover testament to Yuns growing prominence as a 20th cytosine composer. It armys Yuns unique compositional angle which uniquely connects ethnic Korean inspirations in a work for bassoon, which is a distinctly westward instrument. The Monolog for bassoon also warrants a close study, as it is his precisely solo work for bassoon, and is an emerging exemplar of 20th century avant-garde bassoon repertoire.During his initial years into composing, Yun was fond of and got acquaint with European music and constantly found different sought out ways to learn more about European music history, style, and compositional methods. Because of his inclination towards western music more so European music, he also developed inspiration in the musical traditions of his home country, Korea. It was only after his journey to Europe that Yun began to foster and incorporate tralatitious Korean elements into his music. Yun himself admitted this truth through the quest quote When I was in Korea, I enjoyed and listened to our rich Korean musical traditions for entertainment. But I realized the unfathomable treasures of Korean traditional music for the first time only after I came to Europe. Keith Howard notes that prior to Yuns journey to Europe, his works show no search to incorporate elements from Korean traditional music. Yun later removed all works from circulation that he had written prior to his study in Europe as he felt they were not representative of his mature compositional voice. Whilst presenting into intercommunicate broadcasts in Freiburg in 1960 on the subject of traditional eastside Asiatic music, he began to develop his distinct and unique composing style. Yun also spent a major give of his time to study traditional East Asian music so he could play them in his broadcasts. collectible to this research Yun was inspired to compose Loyang, a beautifully compose d work that incorporated the mood of ancient court music, the voices of traditional Korean instruments, as well as the principles of Taoism. But Yuns method of incorporating these elements was not literal in the least. Jeongmee Kim explains He was not interested in quoting folk tunes, nor borrowing traditional Asian instruments, nor composing nostalgic song lyrics. Yuns Korean musical inheritance is expressed through more abstract, philosophical, and internalized use of ethnic materials, in contingent Hauptton/Hauptklang technique. He relied on the use of Korean unequivocal musical forms and Asian philosophy to compete with the equivalent in Europe. These shape and propel the breaks and organize of his works, while the Western musical heritage and its instruments provide the physical authority to articulate Yuns complex sound world. Quite centric to Yuns music can be found a Korean view of sound. While Western ears are accustomed to hearing a melodic figure attended by conso nant progression, Eastern music relies heavily on the consumption of an individual or primal tone. The tone itself is celebrated adorned with a huge variety of ornaments. These ornaments are not intended to encompass the central tone within a melody, rather they are an essential part of how the tone is able to express itself. The concept of the central tone is paramount in many Asian countries and spans various genres of Asian music. Yun describes this phenomenon in a speech he gave at a conference in BerlinWhile in European music the concept of form plays a crucial part, and notes become significant only when a whole group of them are related horizontally as melody or vertically as harmony, the thousand-year-old tradition of Eastern Asiatic music places the single note, the constructive element, in the foreground. In European music only a series of notes comes to life, so that the individual tone can be relatively abstract, but with us the single tone is alive in its own right. Our notes can be compared to brush strokes as foreign to pencil lines. From setoff to end individually note is subject to transformations it is decked out with embellishments, grace notes, fluctuations, glissandi, and dynamic changes above all, the lifelike vibration of all(prenominal) note is consciously employed by a means of expression. A notes changes in pitch are regarded less as intervals forming a melody than as an ornamental function and part of the depart of expression of one and the same note. This method of treating individual notes sets my music unconnected from other contemporary works. It gives it an unmistakably Asiatic color, which is evident even to the uncultivated listener.Keith Howard discusses some meaningful reasons which explain the reason for Korean music universe structured in that way. The initial part is the ironic yet well complementing relationship between yin and yang. After which is the concept of never-ending ride. Nature is held in high re gard in the east asian culture more so with the continuous flow of elements like water, air etc. at present from an abstract or musical view, the flow of sound is thought to be continuous as well. Music exists before sound begins, and continues after sound ends. This is one of the reasons why Yun compares the single tone to brush strokes as opposed to pencil lines. A pencil line has a definite beginning and ending, as well as a uniform shape and concord throughout. But in a brush stroke it is hard to run across where the actual beginning and ending occur. Although to the naked eyes it may show as a single line, it can show different views in a myriad of ways and also have contrasting qualities within each unique stroke, which more precisely mimics the flow of nature. He goes on more to explain his view of continuous flow in an audience with Bruce Duffie where he quotes My music doesnt have a beginning or an end. You could combine elements from one piece into another piece very we ll. Music flows in the cosmos and I have an antenna which is able to carving out a piece of the stream. The part which Ive cut out is organise and formed through my own thought and body processes, and I come in it to paper. Thats why my music is evermore continuous like the clouds that are constantly the same but are never alike one to another.Howard also suggests that the physical structure and musical capabilities of traditional Korean instruments have had a profound impact on the Korean concept of tone. While each instrument is unique in tone and structure, they all are extremely malleable in terms of pitch. Many instruments are so flexible that it can be difficult to produce a steady tone. This is instantly linked to the Korean musical ideal of sound being embellished and ever changing.As Yun chiefly did composing in the sphere of Western art music, wherein a comprehensive intelligence of Korean ornamentation is not mandatory, he does not leave the art of ornamentatio n up to the performer. He makes it a point to word minute details of the ornamentation, few of which exist within the framework of Western notation, others of which he must create new symbols and explanations for, as they are not part of the conventional vocabulary for Western musicians. This was a challenging process for Yun because in his thoughts he held a meticulously expatiate vision of what the ornamentation should sound like. On this part he was quoted as, I wrote down the playing techniques for instrumentalists as they are apply in Korea on the old instruments, thus as a very accurate vibrato and many sorts of glissando. In Korea there are of course about thirty kinds of glissando. To actually emulate the sounds of traditional Korean instruments, Yun had to create new, and often very difficult, techniques for the performers.Isang Yuns Monolog for bassoon was of importly composed between the years 1983 to 1984, however the actual roots of this work had begun some years pr ior along with his other work Clarinet Concerto. The Clarinet Concerto was composed by Yun in the year 1981 especially for Swiss clarinetist Eduard Brunner, who was the oral sex clarinetist of Munichs Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra for about 30 years. He premiered the work in Munich on January 29, 1982. Certain points which were notable about the Clarinet Concerto is the practice of bass clarinet instead of clarinet because of the solo voice during the middle movement. In the following year, Yun removed the solo line from the second movement and then used it as the structural basis for a solo bass clarinet work. The resulting composition of this which was written for Dutch bass clarinet virtuoso Harry Sparnaay, became Yuns Monolog for bass clarinet and was then premiered on April 9, 1983. Expecting some changes and more likely to accommodate range, Yun also print a version of the same work for bassoon. Yun was quoted in an interview with Bruce Duffie in 1987 that he composed strictly by commission, and his scores typically include a dedication to the commissioner. However, the Monolog for bassoon contains no such dedication and it is unknown whether it was created for a particular individual. It was premiered on February 3, 1985 by French bassoonist Alexandre Ouzounoff. Precedent for Yuns solo works being performed on other instruments had been set several years prior with Piri, a composition for solo oboe. Piri was composed in 1971 for oboist Georg Meerwin, which immediately gained rapid popularity. Before long, musicians of other instruments took notice of Piri and began to perform it. Clarinetists specifically performed and recorded Piri, which also including Eduard Brunner. Wolfgang Sparrer was quoted on his observation about about Piri as Although it was originally written for oboe, the composer has allowed interpretations for other instruments. Due to its high demands regarding playing technique and successful fit between construction and expres sion, Piri achieved so much popularity within only a few years that it was often chosen as a dogmatic piece in music competitions. Due to this well spread word meaning and versatility of Piri, Yun may have anticipated the idea of creating an alternate edition of Monolog for bass clarinet for bassoon. Since there are distinct differences in range, key, and clef notation between the ii instruments, publishing a new version of the work for bassoon was necessary to sanction performances. As this analysis specifically addresses the Monolog for bassoon, an in-depth discussion of Yuns Monolog for bass clarinet will not be included with the exception of highlighting the differences between the bassoon and bass clarinet versions as explained below.In a discussion of his compositional process, Yun was quoted by Luise Rinser I do not exhaust my possibilities in any one piece. There always remains something unsolved in form. I make that the starting point of another work. I must always take something new as a challenge. If someday no more new ideas come up, I would stop composing. This statement not just shows the well synergized and critical split in Yuns works, but also provides an answer for his use of the middle movement of the Clarinet Concerto as the basis for an expanded work that would eventually become the Monolog for bassoon.The Monolog for bassoon well showcases Yuns unique compositional fusion of Eastern and Western elements. Although this work at an initial look seems like a general late twentieth century avant-garde work for bassoon utilizing extended techniques within a non-tonal compositional context, Yuns compositional approach looks to specifically convey traditional Korean philosophies, sound ideals, and instrumental techniques. Understanding his compositional method is a key to the performers acquaintance of the work. If only viewed with a Western outlook analysis of this work, there is a possibility to overlook critical elements in the work like main tone versus ornament, or treatment of the ornaments themselves, while making other analytic associations which he did not intend, such as relying on motivic development and harmonic motion to propel the music rather than melodic growth. Just with all musical genres, it is more feasible to have a comprehensive understanding of the main composers musical perspective. This understanding also holds true for music of the twentieth-century than it is for in the first place periods, particularly as modern musical influences become more and more diverse and reach beyond the bounds of traditional Western classical music.Bibliography / DiscographyHur, Dae-Sik. A Combination of Asian Language with Foundations of Western Music An abridgment of Isang Yuns Salomo for Flute Solo or Alto Flute Solo. PhD diss., University of North Texas, 2005.Kim, Jeongmee. melodic Syncretism in Isang Yuns Gasa. In Locating East Asia in Western artistic production Music, edited by Yayoi Uno Everett and Fr ederick Lau, 168-192. Middletown, Conn Wesleyan University Press, 2004.Choi, Yulee. The Problem of Musical entitle Analysis of Selected Instrumental Music of the Korean-Born Composer Isang Yun. Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1992.Helicon, David Currnings, ed. Yun, Isang. Random House cyclopedia Dictionary of Classical Music. Publishing Ltd., Oxford, 1997. 749... Yun, Isang. In Contemporary Composers. Edited by Brian Morton and Pamela Collins. New York St James Press, 1992.Kim, Chul-Hwa. The Musical Ideology and Style of Isang Yun, As Reflected in His Concerto for Violoncello and Orchestra (1975/76). Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign, 1997.Kim, Doosook. A Recording and an Analytical Overview of Two fiddle Works by Isang Yun. Ph.D. diss., Arizona State University, 1996.Kim, Jeongmee. The Diaporic Composer The Fusion of Korean and German Musical Cultures in the work of Isang Yun. Ph.D. diss., University of California, 1999.Kim, Yongwan. Yun Isang Yun Ku. Seo ul Hankuk Yesul Jonghap Hakgou Press, 2001.Kunz, H. Yun, Isang. In The New orchard Dictionary of Music and Musicians Vol. 27. Edited by Stanley Sadie. London Macmillan, Publishers, 2001. 696-697.Musique pour Basson et lightly Vol.2Performer Dag Jensen, Midori KitagawaComposer Paul Hindemith, Olav Berg, Othmar Schoeck, Otmar Nussio, Isang Yun, et al. Audio CD (March 23, 1999) Label MDG Records
Thursday, March 28, 2019
The Poetry of Adrienne flush     Adrienne lively was born in Baltimore, physician in the year of 1929. well-off grew up in a mansion as she describes it as white, middle-class, full of books, and with a get under ones skin who encouraged her to create verbally (Daniel). Her father Arnold large was a doctor and a pathology professor and her mother, Helen Jones bass , was a pianist and a composer. Adrienne mystifying recalls her growing-up years clearly reign by the intellectual presence and demands of the male in the family, her father, while in good order marked by the submerged tensions arising from the conflicts between the religious and cultural hereditary pattern of the fathers Judaic background and her mothers Southern Protestantism (Pope). In the year of 1951, Rich have from Radcliffe University. During this year, Adrienne Rich also won the Yale Younger Poets Prize for her first book, A Change of World. In 1953, Adrienne Rich married Alfred C onrad who was a Harvard economist during the close five years Rich had three sons. Deborah Pope says that Richs journal entries, from these years, state that this was an emotionally and artistically difficult period (Pope). Richs poems were mainly influenced by Robert Frost, Yeates, Stevens, and Auden. She became a major influence, through her essays and verse line, in m whatsoever areas of modern-day womens movements, she had become one of the most provoking voices on the politics of sexuality, race, power, and womens culture.      Adrienne Rich is a southern Jew who grew up during the forties. Rich lived in a gentle neighborhood and was never taught about her Jewish heritage. She eventually had to deal with conflicts between the religious and cultural heritage of her fathers Jewish background and her mothers southern Protestantism (Pope). Richs father didnt show any signs of ethnicity in any way. He did this to fit into a society that was against Jewish peopl e. In umteen of her works, Adrienne Rich talks about being oppressed. In her poem, 1948 Jews, Adrienne Rich refers to her college years. At Radcliffe University, she was to stay away from Jews. No matter how much she wanted, she could non unite with them as a group because socially it was less acceptable. She had to avoid her proclaim ethnicity to survive in the American culture. A Vision, is another poem Rich wrote that discusses the issue of... ...s full of sound and fury (Barclay). She has fused politics and poetry and also revitalized the lost American institution of political poetry. Adrienne Rich depicts herself in her early 1980s poem "Sources," "she is a woman with a mission, not to win prizes/but to change the laws of history" (Rothschild).Works CitedAdrienne Rich. Barclay Agency 2004. 31 Oct 2004 .Adrienne Rich. Bedford/St. Martins 1999. 27 Oct 2004.American Literature Web Resources. May 1999. Millikin University. 2 Nov 2004 . Daniel, Meagan. Adrienne R ich To Make the Work Her Life, and Her Life the Work. Empowerment4Women. 28 descent 2004 .LITWEB. W.W. Norton &type A Company. 28 Dec 2004 . Pope, Deborah. Richs Life and Career. Modern American Poetry. (2000) 27 Oct 2004 .Pettit, Rhonda. Bibliography of Adrienne Rich. Encyclopedia of American Poetry 2001. Compiled and hyperlinked by Gunnan Bengtsson. AmericanPoems.com. 30 Dec 2004 . Rich, Adrienne. Benets Readers Encyclopedia of American Literature. Ed. 1, 1991, Vol. 1 P909. Tennessee electronic Library. 29 Oct 2004 .Rothschild, Matthew. Rich 1994 Interview from the Progressive. Modern American Poetry. (2000) 27 Oct 2004 .
REPAIRING A NATION POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS indisposition IN KUWAITTHESIS Studies made by experts found after(prenominal) the liberation of Kuwait following the Gulf War of 1991 that most children who were within the country experienced undesirable emotions simultaneously which brought out more brachydactylic behaviors. INTRODUCTIONIn the oppressively hot summer of 1990 the second of horrible to be exact, people were sleeping peacefully in their homes. It was a atomic number 90 morning and most Kuwaitis had left the country on holiday. No one(a) ever suspected or believed that a neighboring country of the very(prenominal) religion would invade such a small innocent country. more or less of the Kuwaiti citizens who were inside the country or out-of-door were in shock. This Iraki occupation that Kuwait suffered for seven months was dramatically experienced by twain adults and children. They were exposed to such feral atrocities as executing eitherone who had a typewriter or a camera so that no one in the outside world would know how indecently they were treating a neighboring country. Plus any interference in Sadaams military actions resulted in hundreds of patriots who fought bravely for the freedom of their country.The Iraki soldiers tried to terrorize the Kuwaiti people by subjecting them to different types of pain techniques like raping virgin females and mothers in front of their children. Rape was practiced non only on females but young males too. many an(prenominal) Kuwaiti civilian men, women and children were taken from their homes and never returned to their families. There are still 625 Kuwaiti hostages in Iraq. This number means much to a small community where all family is related to a POW. The people who suffered less are those who lost their homes, nones and other valuables. All those terrors of war have now caused what is called Post-traumatic Stress trouble (PTSD) (Second International Conference, Mental Health in the State of K uwait). People suffered from this brutal and fateful period when the country was under occupation, either by organism forced to start over from scratch or by workings in a new job, building a new house. Many people fell into poverty. Also the thought that their country no perennial existed during the invasion had a very difficult mental effect on the people. They could not believe the reality that their country was being occupied. This idea was particularly traumatic for older people. The behaviors and emotions of Kuwaitis under such war-like circumstances are not new to psychology.
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
The Character of Hedda Gabler Hedda Gabler is peradventure one of the most elicit characters in Ibsen. She has been the object of psychological analysis since her creation. She is an interesting case indeed, for to inform Hedda one must rely on the hints Ibsen gives us from her past and the lines of dialogue that reveal the type of person she is. The ref never views Hedda directly. We never get a soliloquy in which she bares her tit and motives to the audience. Hedda is as indifferent to our analysis as she is to Tesmans excitement over his slippers when she says I really dont care about it (Ibsen 8). But a good psychologist knows that tied(p) this indifference is telling. Underneath the ennui and indifference lies a character deep for psychological investigation The Character of Hedda Gabler remains a product of our speculation. That is, as we process the surface details we perceive in the various postures she assumes, we say an idea of the figure underneath the m need. ( Lyons 83). This paper will try to explain Hedda with the aid of critical analysis. The first aspect of the play that strikes the reader is the title. earlier we even read a line of this play we notice the incongruity between the name of the title character and her name in the play. In the play Hedda is Tesmans wife, but the title suggests that she is the independent daughter of the late normal Gabler. Thus, Ibsen introduces the reader to this complex character before the curtain is drawn. We immediately ask the question why is the title Hedda Gabler and not Hedda Tesman? Perhaps Ibsen is suggesting Heddas independence from her stand for situation, the situation in which she is introduce... ...wman. She too is confused about her own individualism and appears to be in the grip of forces beyond her understanding and control--social and psychological forces. Nevertheless, Hedda is an interesting case and Ibsens play foreshadows many psychological and social concerns of the 20th c entury. kit and boodle CITED Helland, F. Irony and Experience in Hedda Gabler. Contemporary Approaches to Ibsen. Ed. Hemmer and Ystad. Norway Scandinavian UP, 1994. 99-119. Ibsen, Henrik. Hedda Gabler. New York capital of Delaware Publications, 1990. Lyons, C. Hedda Gabler Gender, Role, and World. MA Twayne, 1991. Northam, J. Ibsens Dramatic Method A Study of the Prose Dramas. London Faber and Faber Limited, 1953. Weigland, H. The juvenile Ibsen A Reconsideration. New York E.P. Dutton, 1960.
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
charge Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Robert daydreamed so much that he was pulled out of give instruction. bold went into such trancelike dreams that i had to shout at him to bring him back. every bit problematic were Sams restlessness and verbal diatribes. Virginia, too, demonstrated a leanency to take to task on and on. Thomas experienced school problems, in part because of his proud energy. Nicks tendency to act without thinking caused him to have several scrapes with death and near-tragedies, such as plunging to the earth from the roof of a barn, clutching an umbrella (Cramond). These argon examples of situations that are common to many children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Children with ADHD tend to have creative and ridiculous was of thinking, and many problems boil downing on ane task, especially in school situations. Today children with this disorder are a great mound prescribed medications to admit their attention and/or hyperactivity. But are we doing what is in the best interest for children, or making it easier on the adults who have to deal with these children daily? In the previous stated examples we can see how the concentration, hyperactivity, and unique ways of thinking, and behaving that were exemplified by Robert Frost, Frank Llyod Wright, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Virginia Wolf, Thomas Edison, and Nikola Tesla. All of these individuals faced school problems, dark diagnoses, or worse. These are example of creative individuals whose deportment could besides be interpreted as the inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Cramond). The equity is within the past two generations a phenomenon has taken place in connection to children across this country. Today one and a half meg children take medication to focus attention and control hyperactive behavior (Freed 216). Most of these children have been d iagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. There are tierce pillowcases of ADHD the first consists of inattention only or the inability to focus attention. The second consists of hyperactivity and impulsivity. The third form of ADHD is a combined type where the child or adult has difficulty dealing with attention and hyperactivity and impulsivity. Children with ADHD are typically prescribed a drug called Ritalin (or one similar to it), which is a methylphenidate (recently amphetamines have been used also) making it easier to control behavior.
Relationships Between Mothers and Daughters Exposed in The contentment Luck companionship Amy Tans novel, The enjoyment Luck Club is one that is truly amazing and a joy to read. There are a number of issues at sketch in the novel, the most obvious one is the exploration of relationships among mothers and daughters. Unfortunately, for these quatern sets of mothers and daughters, there is not only a generational gap between them, precisely a cultural one as well. Tan reveals these rifts, and their get by for one another, in much the same way William Faulkner or Toni Morrison permit us glimpse their characters lives instead of telling us their stories. This quality, along with the classic generational/cultural gap make this somewhat autobiographical performance of fiction one that people will be reading for age to scram. In the second half of this century, it has become important for people to look for and get back in touch with their culture. We see the result of this in the popularity of writers such as Morrison and Tan. What makes Tans work important is that it is not just for Asian-American people, but that people of all ethnicities can enjoy it, finding pieces of themselves within. Also, I speculate this work helps bring a greater understanding of the Chinese culture, for both Asian-Americans and non-Asian people. And what could be better than that? While Tan is a creative and intellectual author in her own right, there are writers that have come before who have kind of paved the way for writers such as Tan through their own writing. Faulkner is one such writer, who focused galore(postnominal) of his novels such as The Sound and the Fury and As I order Dying, on the family dynamic and are examples of books that have been written in a decentered, multiple monologue mode (S... ...n Writers. Ed. Harold Bloom. Philadelphia Chelsea House, 1997. 85-7. Schell, Orville. Critical Extract. Asian-American Women Writers. Ed. Harold Bloom. Phila delphia Chelsea House, 1997. 82-3. Shear, Walter. Generational differences and the diaspora in The Joy Luck Club. Women Writers. 34.3 (Spring 1993) 193. Expanded Academic Index. Souris, Stephen. Only Two Kinds of Daughters Inter- Monologue Dialogicity in The Joy Luck Club. Melus 19.2 (Summer 1994)99-123. Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club. New York Ivy Books, 1989. Willard, Nancy. Critical Extract. Asian-American Women Writers. Ed. Harold Bloom. Philadelphia Chelsea House, 1997. 84-5. Xu, Ben. retrospect and the Ethnic Self Reading Amy Tans Joy Luck Club. Melus 19.1 (Spring 1994) 3-17.
Monday, March 25, 2019
Women on Death RowThe eighth amendment protects Americans from the annoying of cruel and unusual punishment. Many death penalty opponents use this as the backbone to their argument against gravid punishment. Other than being cruel, I do not think that the death penalty can be apply judiciously in the United States or any other ingredient of the world. Personally, I do not think that human beings are consummate(a) and as such they cannot set up a perfect arbiter system. In any justice system that is flawed and allows bias in certain cases, the death penalty should not be used as a means of punishment because of its irrevocable nature. When I came across Sarah Hawkins hold regarding the case of Karla Faye stupefy, I was surprised to see the manifestation of my fears of the biases involved in the use of the death penalty in the case of this woman. Hawkins described how the representations of Tucker as a white, heterosexual Christian woman worked in her choose in the criminal ju stice system, and how media representations perpetuated the argument for her release from death dustup. Hawkins make very valid and convincing arguments that representations of womanhood that are expected in American culture can make a large deviance in how we perceive criminals, and in certain cases these representations can be a matter of life or death. Of course, we all know from common adept that women are far less likely to be sentenced to death row than men. This should tip us off to the differences that the judicial system discriminates even in matters as important as murder or other capital offences. But within the subgroup of women prisoners there can be a line made between the representations of women more likely to be sentenced to death row, or in this case shown benignity while on death row. Hawkins describes this compassion as typically extended only to female inmates who fit a certain predetermined societal profile of women. This definition of women or womanhood i s very interesting and deserves to be explored. In my past, I have a conception of women as being sweet and frail basically unequal to(p) of doing wrong because they are too nice or too feeble to do so. Women who are too intelligent or too blind drunk are cast off as being masculine or lesbians. When female basketball players are seen on television, they are perceived as trying to be masculine.
Types of Biogeochemical CycleBiogeochemical cps is crucial for every living beingness on landed estate. It is strongly influenced by life clays, especially plants and microorganisms. A biogeochemical cycle flush toilet be defined as a continuous piece of ground by which conversion and circulation of chemical nutrients through both biotic and abiotic compartments of Earth (Butcher, 1992). Generally, biogeochemical cycles can be classified into three major categories which are northward cycle, sulfur cycle and coulomb cycle (Refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).First type of biogeochemical cycle is atomic number 7 cycle. Nitrogen is plenteous and chemically inert gases, constitutes of ab forth 78% of the atmosphere. According to Stevenson and Cole (1999), aggregation in soil happens through microbial fixation of nitrogen in the presence of ammonia, nitrate and nitrite depletion exists in the process of crop removal, leaching and volatilization. In term of that, the process of rel easing compound during decomposition is called mineralization. Mineralization process is carried out by the microorganisms in which it releases vitamin C paper, and also ammonium (Sprent, 1987). As a result, numerous kinds of organic reduce nitrogen present, like urea, organic bases, such as purines and pyrimidines, and amino compounds. Animals have nitrogenous wastes and will eventually produce haemorrhoid of nitrogen (Sprent, 1987). Several pathways are illustrated throughout the nitrogen cycle, such as nitrogen fixation, ammonification, nitrification and denitrification. Gates (1921) stated that the process of converted gaseous nitrogen into ammonia or ammonium is nitrogen fixation, while ammonium can also be produced through the decaying of nitrogenous organic substance, which is called ammonification. Afte... ...ut slowly ingestion of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (Zepp, & Sonntag, 1995). Hanson, Ducklow and Field (2000) mention that in the ocean, some of the carbo n taken up by phytoplankton in order to make shells of calcium carbonate that settles to the bottom of the sea to course of study sediments. In geological carbon cycle, carbonic acid combines with magnesium and calcium in the Earths crust to form insoluble carbonates. Carbon dioxide reacts with some minerals to form limestone, then dissolves by pelting and carries to the oceans. Once there, it can precipitate out of the ocean water and form layer of sediments on the sea floor. The limestone melts and reacts with other minerals under high rage and pressure far below the Earths surface by releasing carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is then back into the atmosphere through volcanic eruptions (Lockwood, & Hazlett, 2010).
Historically, the representation of gay, black men on goggle box has fallen short of the mark . We have seen sissies, faggots and finger-snapping queens sashaying across the screen, feminizing and marginalizing African-American men by these racially insensitive and homophobic caricatures. In this news report I examine the characters Keith Charles of HBOs Six Feet Under, Omar Little of HBOs The Wire, Lafayette Reynolds of HBOs True Blood, and Julien Lowe of FXs The Shield and how their characters manifest their maleness. The three characters that appear on HBO shows are portrayed as strong, masculine, openly gay men. Only Lowe, the mend African-American gay man who has appeared on a basic agate line hour-long television drama is a closeted gay character. Since the out characters appear on HBO and the closeted character appears on basic cable, is it possible that an audience who can grant to pay for HBO is genial of the representation of masculine gay men plot of ground an au dience watching on basic cable is not tolerant of that representation? Or is HBOs marketing campaign, Its not TV, its HBO an experimentation with genre, coupled with their strategy of distancing themselves from broadcast television culminating in a distinguishable brand name and a noticeable schism among pay cable and broadcast television (Jaramillo 60). Or rather, is the HBO audience wholeness that is able to pay for a subscription to HBO, tho gazing at these characters? Are these characters just a twist on the big black buck boss for a post-modern audience one comfortable with explorations of masculine, racialized, gay desire? HBOs marketing certainly attempts to position itself as a step above broadcast TV, airing programming that is de... ...hough he is tall and strong, Juliens masculinity is policed aggressively and violently by his peers. When the rumor spreads that Julien is gay, his match officers, beat and encumber him. Despite his stature, Julien quietly submits t o their threats and intimidation. Quite literally, Juliens masculinity is policed by his fellow police officers. Much like Patricia Hill Collins assertion or so controlling images and that representations of black women as mammies and matriarchs work as powerful ideological justifications for intersecting oppressions of race, class, gender and sexuality (p. 69) the same can be employ to the controlling images of black male masculinity, the faggot and the queen. Controlling images hightail it to justify various oppressions by distorting reality through reducing the class subjected black body to a controllable object.